GLOSSARY

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July 2,2007

 

Glossary

ABC Classification: Classification of a group of items in decreasing order of annual dollar volume or other criteria. This array is then split into three classes called A, B, and C. The A group represents 10 to 20% by number of items, and 50 to 70% by projected dollar volume. The next grouping, B, represents about 20% of the items and about 20% of the dollar volume. The C-class contains 60 to 70% of the items, and represents about 10 to 30% of the dollar volume.

ABC Costing: See Activity Based Costing

ABC Inventory Control: An inventory control approach based on the ABC volume or sales revenue classification of products (A items are highest volume or revenue, C—or perhaps D—are lowest volume SKUs).

ABC Model: In cost management, a representation of resource costs during a time period that are consumed through activities and traced to products, services, and customers or to any other object that creates a demand for the activity to be performed.

ABC System: In cost management, a system that maintains financial and operating data on an organization’s resources, activities, drivers, objects and measures. ABC models are created and maintained within this system.

Active Stock: Goods in active pick locations and ready for order filling.

Activity: Work performed by people, equipment, technologies or facilities. Activities are usually described by the “action-verb-adjective-noun” grammar convention. Activities may occur in a linked sequence and activity-to-activity assignments may exist. 1) In activity-based cost accounting, a task or activity, performed by or at a resource, required in producing the organization’s output of goods and services. A resource may be a person, machine, or facility.
Activities are grouped into pools by type of activity and allocated to products. 2) In project management, an element of work on a project. It usually has an anticipated duration, anticipated cost, and expected resource requirements. Sometimes “major activity” is used for larger bodies of work.

Activity Analysis: The process of identifying and cataloging activities for detailed understanding and documentation of their characteristics. An activity analysis is accomplished by means of interviews, group sessions, questionnaires, observations, and reviews of physical records of work. Acknowledgment: A communication by a supplier to advise a purchaser that a purchase order has been received. It usually implies acceptance of the order by the supplier.
Acquisition Cost: In cost accounting, the cost required to obtain one or more units of an item. It is order quantity times unit cost.

Action Message: An output of a system that identifies the need for and the type of action to be taken to correct a current or potential problem. Examples of action messages in an MRP system include release order, reschedule in, reschedule out, and cancel. Synonym: exception message, action report.

Action Plan: A specific method or process to achieve the results called for by one or more objectives. An action plan may be a simpler version of a project plan.

Action Report: See Action Message

Activation: In constraint management, the use of non-constraint resources to make parts or products above the level needed to support the system constraint(s). The result is excessive work-in-process inventories or finished goods inventories, or both. In contrast, the term utilization is used to describe the situation in which non-constraint resource(s) usage is synchronized to support the needs of the constraint.

Active Inventory: The raw materials, work in process, and finished goods that will be used or sold within a given period. been received. It usually implies acceptance of the order by the supplier.

Acquisition Cost: In cost accounting, the cost required to obtain one or more units of an item. It is order quantity times unit cost.

Action Report: See Action Message

Active Inventory: The raw materials, work in process, and finished goods that will be used or sold within a given period.

ABP: See Activity Based Planning.

Absorption Costing: In cost management, an approach to inventory valuation in which variable costs and a portion of fixed costs are assigned to each unit of production. The fixed costs are usually allocated to units of output on the basis of direct labor hours, machine hours, or material costs. Synonym: Allocation Costing.

Activity Ratio: A financial ratio used to determine how an organization’s resources perform relative to the revenue the resources produce. Activity ratios include inventory turnover, receivables conversion period, fixed-asset turnover, and return on assets.

Actual Cost System: A cost system that collects costs historically as they are applied to production and allocates indirect costs to products based on the specific costs and achieved volume of the products.

Actual Costs: The labor, material, and associated overhead costs that are charged against a job as it moves through the production process.

Actual Demand: Actual demand is composed of customer orders (and often allocations of items, ingredients, or raw materials to production or distribution). Actual demand nets against or “consumes” the forecast, depending upon the rules chosen over a time horizon. For example, actual demand will totally replace forecast inside the sold-out customer order backlog horizon (often called the demand time fence), but will net against the forecast outside this horizon based on the chosen forecast consumption rule.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS):  The techniques that deal with analysis and planning of logistics and manufacturing over short, intermediate, and long-term time periods.  APS describes any computer program that uses advanced mathematical algorithms or logic to perform optimization or simulation on finite capacity scheduling, sourcing, capital planning, resource planning, forecasting, demand management, and others. These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints and business rules to provide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-to promise, and capable-to-promise capabilities. APS often generates and evaluates multiple scenarios. Management then selects one scenario to use as the "official plan." The five main components of APS systems are demand planning, production planning, production scheduling, distribution planning, and transportation planning.

Air Waybill (AWB): A bill of lading for air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper indicates that the carrier has accepted the goods listed obligates the carrier to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. Algorithm: A clearly specified mathematical process for computation; a set of rules, which, if followed, give a prescribed result.

All-cargo Carrier: An air carrier that transports cargo only.

Allocated Item: In an MRP system, an item for which a picking order has been released to the stockroom but not yet sent from the stockroom.

Allocation: 1) In cost accounting, a distribution of costs using calculations that may be unrelated to physical observations or direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationships. Because of the arbitrary nature of allocations, costs based on cost causal assignment are viewed as more relevant for management decision-making. 2) In order management, allocation of available inventory to customer and production orders.

Allocation Costing: See Absorption Costing

American National Standards Institute (ANSI): A non-profit organization chartered to develop, maintain, and promulgate voluntary U.S. national standards in a number of areas, especially with regards to setting EDI standards. ANSI is the U.S. representative to the International Standards Organization (ISO).

Any-Quantity Rate (AQ): The same rate applies to any size shipment tendered to a carrier; no discount rate is available for large shipments.

Application Service Provider (ASP): A company that offers access over the Internet to application (examples of applications include word processors, database programs, Web browsers, development tools, communication programs) and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own computers. Sometimes referred to as “apps-on-tap", ASP services are expected to become an important alternative, especially for smaller companies with low budgets for information technology. The purpose is to try to reduce a company's burden by installing, managing, and maintaining software.

Appraisal Costs: Those costs associated with the formal evaluation and audit of quality in the firm. Typical costs include inspection, quality audits, testing, calibration, and checking time.

Approved Vendor List (AVL): List of the suppliers approved for doing business. The AVL is usually created by procurement or sourcing and engineering personnel using a variety of criteria such as technology, functional fit of the product, financial stability, and past performance of the supplier.

APS: See Advanced Planning and Scheduling

AQ: See Any quantity rate

AQL: See Acceptable Quality Level

A/R: See Accounts Receivable

Arrival Notice: A notice from the delivering carrier to the Notify Party indicating the shipment's arrival date at a specific location (normally the destination).

Arrow diagram: A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and the interconnectivity of such nodes. It is used for scheduling and especially for determining the critical path through nodes. Attachment: An accessory that has to be physically attached to the product.

Attributes: A label used to provide additional classification or information about a resource, activity, or cost object. Used for focusing attention and may be subjective. Examples are a characteristic, a score or grade of product or activity, or groupings of these items, and performance measures.

Audit: The inspection and examination of a process or quality system to ensure compliance to requirements. An audit can apply to an entire organization or may be specific to a function, process or production step.

Audit Trail: Manual or computerized tracing of the transactions affecting the contents or origin of a record.

Auditing: Determining the correct transportation charges due the carrier: auditing involves checking the accuracy of the freight bill for errors, correct rate, and weight.

Auditability: A characteristic of modern information systems, gauged by the ease with which data can be substantiated by trading it to source documents and the extent to which auditors can rely on pre-verified and monitored control processes. Automated Broker Interface (ABI): The U.S. Customs program to automate the flow of customs related information among customs brokers, importers, and carriers.

Automated Call Distribution (ACD): A feature of large call center or “Customer Interaction Center” telephone switches that routes calls by rules such as next available employee, skill-set etc.

Automated Clearinghouse (ACH): A nationwide electronic payments system, which more than
15,000 financial institutions use, on behalf of 100,000 corporations and millions of consumer in the U.S. The funds transfer system of choice among businesses that make electronic payments to vendors, it is economical and can carry remittance information in standardized, computer process able data formats.

Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Update of outmoded Automated Commercial System (ACS). It is intended to provide automated information system to enable the collection, processing and analysis of commercial import and export data, allowing for moving goods through the ports faster and at lower cost, as well as detection of terrorist threats.

Average Payment Period (for materials): The average time from receipt of production-related materials and payment for those materials. Production-related materials are those items classified as material purchases and included in the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) as raw material purchases. (An element of Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time). Calculation: [Five point annual average production-related material accounts payable] / [Annual production-related material receipts/365]

AVL: See Approved Vendor List

Avoidable Cost: A cost associated with an activity that would not be incurred if the activity was not performed (e.g., telephone cost associated with vendor support).

AWB: See Air Waybill

BAM: See Business Activity Monitoring

Bar Code: A symbol consisting of a series of printed bars representing values. A system of optical character reading, scanning, and tracking of units by reading a series of printed bars for translation into a numeric or alphanumeric identification code. A popular example is the UPC code used on retail packaging.

Bar code scanner: A device to read bar codes and communicate data to computer systems.

Barge: The cargo-carrying vehicle used primarily by inland water carriers. The basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes.

Barrier to Entry: Factors that prevent companies from entering into a particular market, such as high initial investment in equipment.

Base Demand: The percentage of a company’s demand that is derived from continuing contracts and/or existing customers. Because this demand is well known and recurring, it becomes the basis of management’s plans. Synonym: Baseload Demand

Base Index: See Base Series

Base Inventory Level: The inventory level made up of aggregate lot-size inventory plus the aggregate safety stock inventory. It does not take into account the anticipation inventory that will result from the production plan. The base inventory level should be known before the production plan is made. Also see: Aggregate Inventory.

Best Practice: A specific process or group of processes which have been recognized as the best method for conducting an action. Best Practices may vary by industry or geography depending on the environment being used. Best practices methodology may be applied with respect to resources, activities, cost object, or processes.

Bilateral Contract: An agreement wherein each party makes a promise to the other party.

Bill of Activities: A listing of activities required by a product, service, process output or other cost object. Bill of activity attributes could include volume and or cost of each activity in the listing.

Bill of Lading (BOL): A transportation document that is the contract of carriage containing the terms and conditions between the shipper and carrier.

Bill of Lading, Through:  A bill of lading to cover goods from point of origin to final destination when interchange or transfer from one carrier to another is necessary to complete the journey.

Bill of Material (BOM): A structured list of all the materials or parts and quantities needed to produce a particular finished product, assembly, subassembly, or manufactured part, whether purchased or not.

Bill of Material Accuracy: Conformity of a list of specified items to administrative specifications, with all quantities correct.

Bill of Resources: A listing of resources required by an activity. Resource attributes could include cost and volumes.

Bin: 1) A storage device designed to hold small discrete parts. 2) A shelving unit with physical dividers separating the storage locations.

Binary: A computer term referring to a system of numerical notation that assumes only two possible states or values, zero (0) and one (1). Computer systems use a binary technique where an individual bit or “Binary Digit” of data can be “on” or “off” (1 or 0). Multiple bits are combined into a “Byte” which represents a character or number. Bottleneck: A constraint, obstacle or planned control that limits throughput or the utilization of capacity.

Bottom-up Replanning:  A term used in MRP which is the process of using pegging data to solve material availability or other problems. This process is accomplished by the planner (not the computer system), who evaluates the effects of possible solutions. Potential solutions include compressing lead time, cutting order quantity, substituting material, and changing the master schedule.

Box-Jenkins Model: A forecasting method based on regression and moving average models. The model is based not on regression of independent variables, but on past observations of the item to be forecast at varying time lags and on previous error values from forecasting. See also: Forecast.

Boxcar: An enclosed rail car typically 40 to 50 feet long; used for packaged freight and some bulk commodities. Bracing: Securing a shipment inside a carrier’s vehicle to prevent damage.

Breadman: A specific application of Kanban, used in coordinating vendor replenishment activities. In making bread or other route type deliveries, the deliveryman typically arrives at the customer's location and fills a designated container or storage location with product. The size of the order is not specified on an ongoing basis, nor does the customer even specify requirements for each individual delivery. Instead, the supplier assumes the responsibility for quantifying the need against a prearranged set of rules and delivers the requisite quantity.

Break-Bulk: The separation of a single consolidated bulk load into smaller individual shipments for delivery to the ultimate consignees. This is preceded by a consolidation of orders at the time of shipment, where many individual orders which are destined for a specific geographic area are grouped into one shipment in order to reduce cost.

Break-Even Chart: A graphical tool showing the total variable cost and fixed cost curve along with the total revenue curve. The point of intersection is defined as the break-even point, i.e., the point at which total revenues exactly equal total costs. Also see: Total Cost Curve

Break-Even Point: The level of production or the volume of sales at which operations are neither profitable nor unprofitable. The break-even point is the intersection of the total revenue and total cost curves.

Bulk storage: The process of housing or storing materials and packages in larger quantities. This is generally done using the original packaging or shipping containers or boxes.

Bulk packing: The process or act of placing numbers of small cartons or boxes into a larger single box to aid in the movement of product and to prevent damage or pilferage to the smaller cartons or boxes.

Bullwhip Effect: An extreme change in the supply position upstream in a supply chain generated by a small change in demand downstream in the supply chain. Inventory can quickly move from being backordered to being excess. This is caused by the serial nature of communicating orders up the chain with the inherent transportation delays of moving product down the chain. The bullwhip effect can be eliminated by synchronizing the supply chain.

Bundle: A group of products that are shipped together as an unassembled unit.

Bundling:  This is an occurrence where two or more products are combined into one transaction for a single price.

Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): A term which refers to capturing operational data in real-time or close to it, making it possible for an enterprise to react more quickly to events. This is typically done through software and includes features to provide alerts / notifications when specific events occur. See also: Supply Chain Event Management

Business Application: Any computer program, set of programs, or package of programs created to solve a particular business problem or function.

Business Continuity Plan (BCP): A contingency plan for sustained operations during periods of high risk, such as during labor unrest or natural disaster.

Business Logistics: The systematic and coordinated set of activities required to provide the physical movement and storage of goods (raw materials, parts, finished goods) from vendor/supply services through company facilities to the customer (market) and the associated activities—packaging, order processing, etc.—in an efficient manner necessary to enable the organization to contribute to the explicit goals of the company.

CAD
See Cash Against Documents.
CAF
See Currency Adjustment Factor.
Call
The visit of a vessel to a port.
Call Sign
A code published by the International Telecommunication Union in its annual List of Ships' Stations to be used for the information interchange between vessels, port authorities and other relevant participants in international trade.
CALS Test Network
The CALS Test Network (CTN) is a confederation of hundreds of industry and government organizations that have agreed to evaluate and demonstrate the interchange and functional use of digital technical information using CALS standards. This is accomplished through a collaborative multi-service effort.
Acronym: CTN
Capacity
The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.
Capacity Control
Process of registering and steering of capacity.
Cargo
Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L.
Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship's stores, ship's spare parts, ship's equipment, stowage material, crew's effects and passengers' accompanied baggage (IMO).
Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied or mishandled baggage Also referred to as 'goods' (ICAO).
Cargo Handling
All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.
Cargo Restriction Code
A code indicating that the use of a certain container is restricted to particular cargo.
Cargo Tracer
A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or overlanded.
Cargo Unit
A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.
Carriage
The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
Synonym: Transport.
Carriage and Insurance Paid To (...named place of destination)
"Carriage and insurance paid to..." means that the seller has the same obligations as under CPT but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.
The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used for any mode of transport including multimodal transport.
Carriage Paid To (...named place of destination)
"Carriage paid to... " means that the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier.
"Carrier" means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of' carriage, by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.
The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
This term may be used for any mode of transport including multimodal transport.
Carrier
The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.
Carrier Haulage
The inland transport service which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.
Carriers Bill of Lading Ports
Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers' ocean vessels.
Note: Under normal circumstances in the B/L only ports should be mentioned which are actually called at.
Carriers' Lien
When the shipper ships goods 'collect', the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.
Carrying Temperature
Required cargo temperature during transport and storage.
See also Setting/Air Delivery Temperature.
Cartage
See Haulage.
Cash Against Documents
Abbreviation: CAD
Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
Cash On Delivery
Abbreviation: COD
Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits the amount to the shipper.
Catalog aggregation
Normalizing product data from multiple vendors so it can be easily compared. Virtual distributors and content aggregators often provide this service to buyers. Most valuable when products are complex and have many attributes. Prices are set, sometimes on contract.
Catalog aggregators
Make sense of buying options by aggregating catalogs from multiple vendors with relatively static prices. Act as a neutral intermediary but help buyers make sense of multiple vendors. Also normalize information coming from diverse sources to enable comparisons of similar products and services.Typically function as virtual distributors but don't take possession of goods themselves. Collect transaction fees on purchases but can generate additional revenue via credit checks, logistics, fulfillment, insurance, or other parts of the transaction process. Must satisfy suppliers' needs for differentiation while making comparisons possible for buyers. Examples: Chemdex, PlasticsNet, Sciquest (scientific equipment), Testmart (test equipment). Synonym: Virtual distributor.
Cell
Location on board of a container vessel where one container can be stowed.
Cell-guide
Steel bars and rails used to steer containers during loading and discharging whilst sliding in the ship.
Cell Position
The location of a cell on board of a container vessel identified by a code for successively the bay, the row and the tier, indicating the position of a container on that vessel.
Cellular Vessel
A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.
Central Warehouse
A warehouse which performs central functions for a number of warehouses. (e.g. keeping capacity stock).
Centre of Gravity
Point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position.
Certificate
A document by which a fact is formally or officially attested and in which special requirements and conditions can be stated.
Certificate of Analysis
A document, often required by an importer or governmental authorities, attesting to the quality or purity of commodities.
The origin of the certification may be a chemist or any other authorized body such as an inspection firm retained by the exporter or importer. In some cases the document may be drawn up by the manufacturer certifying that the merchandise shipped has been tested in his facility and found conform to the specifications.
Certificate of Classification
A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.
Certificate of Delivery
A certificate indicating the condition of a vessel upon delivery for a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.
Certificate of Free Sale
A certificate, required by some countries as evidence that the goods are normally sold on the open market and approved by the regulatory authorities in the country of origin.
Certificate of Origin
A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programs or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.
Certificate of Redelivery
A certificate, indicating the condition of a vessel upon redelivery from a charter including ballast, available bunkers and fresh water.
CFR
See Cost and Freight (...named port of destination).
CFS
See Container Freight Station.
Chain Conveyor
A conveyor consisting of two or more strands of chain running in parallel tracks with the loads carried directly on the chains.
Channel enablers
Marketplaces friendly to existing distribution channels rather than trying to create a new channel. Maintain relationships for the traders rather than in the Net market itself. Examples: IMXchange.com (market for mortgage lenders and brokers), Channelpoint (market between insurance brokers and carriers).
Charge
An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.
Charge Type
A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.
Charter Contract
See Charter Party.
Charter Party
A contract in which the ship owner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.
Charterer
The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.
Chassis

  1. A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance
  2. The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body

Churn
The relentless cycle of acquiring new customers and losing others that characterizes consumer e-commerce and reduces lifetime customer value because switching is so easy. (See switching costs, lifetime value of the customer.)
CIF
"Cost, Insurance and Freight" means that the seller has the same obligations as under CFR but with the addition that he has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.
The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purposes such as in the case of roll-on/ roll-off or container traffic, the CIP term is more appropriate to use.
CIM
Computer Integrated Manufacturing, an ESPRIT project on the use of information technology in industrial environments.
Acronym: CIM
CIP
See Carriage and Insurance Paid To (...named place of destination).
Claim
A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.
Classification
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likenesses or some common traits.
Classification Society
An organization, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of shipping containers.
Clean Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the B/L).
It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).
Clean on Board
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean.
Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.
Clearance Terminal
Terminal where Customs facilities for the clearance of goods are available.
Cleared Without Examination
Abbreviation: CWE
Cleared by customs without inspection.
Client
A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent.
Synonym: Customer.
Clip on Unit
Abbreviation: COU
Detachable aggregate for a temperature controlled container (Conair).
Closed Ventilated Container
A container of a closed type, similar to a general purpose container, but specially designed for carriage of cargo where ventilation, either natural or mechanical (forced), is necessary.
CLP
See Container Load Plan.
CNC
See Compagneurs Nationales des Conteneurs.
Coalition
Coalitions are either buy-side or sell-side and are generally groups of buyers or sellers who agree to channel procurement through a single marketplace. They operate a marketplace without having a third party, neutral Net market as the hub. Many claim to be neutral--that anyone can join--but, by the nature of their partnership their first audience is either buyers or sellers. The advantage of coalitions, particularly buy-side coalitions, is they can do a lot of transactions, which creates marketplace liquidity. However, the problem with coalitions is they have several challenges to overcome--political challenges, both from regulators and relationships between powerful companies, as well as technology challenges of integrating legacy systems. Due to the complexity of these issues, none are operational yet. If they do in fact successfully overcome these obstacles and operationalize, we expect they will conduct a large number of transactions because they can force their suppliers to go through this marketplace to conduct the transactions.
COC
Carrier Owned Container
COD
See Cash On Delivery.
Cofferdam
An empty space on board of a vessel between two bulkheads or two decks separating oil tanks from each other and/or the engine room or other compartments.
Collapsible Container
Container which can be easily folded, disassembled and reassembled.
Co-loading
The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.
Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service
A technical information service based on the integration of databases (contractor , subcontractor, and government ) contractually established and managed by the defense contractor to receive, maintain, and provide access to technical and support information on a defense system.
Co-makership
The long-term relationship between e.g. a supplier or a carrier and a customer, on the basis of mutual confidence.
Synonym: Co-shippership.
Combination Charge
An amount which is obtained by combining two or more charges.
Combination Chassis
A chassis which can carry either one forty foot or thirty foot container or a combination of shorter containers e.g. 2 x 20 foot.
Combined Transport
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.
Synonym: Multimodal Transport
Combined Transport Bill of Lading
See: Bill of Lading R302.
Combined Transport Document
Abbreviation: CTD
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.
Synonym: Multi modal transport document.
Combined Transport Operator
Abbreviation: CTO
A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
Synonym: Multimodal Transport Operator.
Commercial Invoice
A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.
Commodity
Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonized system.
Commodity Box Rate
A rate classified by commodity and quoted per container.
Commodity Code
Code used in the Harmonized System for the classification of goods which are most commonly produced and traded.
Common Access Reference
A key to relate all subsequent transfers of data to the same business case or file.
Compagneurs Nationales des Conteneurs
Abbreviation: CNC affiliate of the French National Railways for Container traffic.
Component
A uniquely identifiable product that is considered indivisible for a particular planning or control purpose, and/or which cannot be decomposed without destroying it.
Note: A component for one organizational group may be the final assembly of another group (e.g. electric motor).
Compradore
A local advisor or agent employed by a foreign party or company who acts as an intermediary in transactions with local inhabitants.
Computer Virus
A program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.
Conair Container
Thermal container served by an external cooling system (e.g. a vessel's or Clip On Unit), which regulates the temperature of cargo.
Note: Conair is a brand name.
Conditions
Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else.
Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately.
Cones
Devices for facilitating the loading, positioning and lashing of containers. The cones insert into the bottom castings of the container.
Synonym: Locating pin.
Congestion
Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.
Connecting Road Haulage
See Drayage.
Consignee
The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.
Consignment
A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document.
Synonym for the USA: Shipment.
Consignment Instructions
Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered:

  • Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage)
  • Customs formalities
  • Distribution of documents
  • Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations)
  • Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required)

Consignment Note
A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.
Consignment Stock
The stock of goods with an external party (customer) which is still the property of the supplier. Payment for these goods is made to the supplier at the moment when they are sold (used) by this party.
Consignor
See Shipper.
Consolidate
To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.
Consolidated Container
Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.
Consolidation
The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.
Consolidation Point
Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.
Consolidator
A firm or company which consolidates cargo.
Consortium
Consortium is a form of cooperation between two or more carriers to operate in a particular trade.
Consular Invoice
An invoice covering shipment of goods certified by a consular official of the destination country, and used normally by customs or officials concerned with foreign exchange availability to ascertain the correctness of commercial invoice values.
Container
An item of equipment as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of:

  • a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use
  • specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading
  • fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another
  • so designed as to be easy to fill and empty
  • having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more

The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing
Synonym: Freight Container.
Container Bolster
A container floor without sides or end walls which does not have the ISO corner fittings and is generally used for Ro/Ro operations.
Synonym: Bolster.
Note: A bolster cannot be handled either full or empty by a container spreader without special gear.
Container Chassis
A vehicle specially built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when container and chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer.
Container Check Digit
The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.
Container Depot
Storage area for empty containers.
Container Freight Station
Abbreviation: CFS
A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received from merchants for loading (stuffing) into containers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers and delivered to merchants.
Container Lease
The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to a lessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
Container Load Plan
A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate their sequence of loading.
Container Logistics
The controlling and positioning of containers and other equipment.
Container Manifest
The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.
Synonym: Unit packing list, Container Load Plan.
Container Moves
The number of actions performed by one container crane during a certain period.
Container Number
Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit. (e.g. KNLU 123456-7, see also container serial number and container prefix.)
Container Owner
A party who has a container at his disposal and who is entitled to lease or sell the container.
Container Platform
A container floor without sides or end walls which can be loaded by spreader directly and is generally used for Lo-Lo operations.
Container Pool
A certain stock of containers which is jointly used by several container carriers and/or leasing companies.
Container Prefix
A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.
Synonym: Owner's Container Code.
Container Safety Convention
Abbreviation: CSC
International convention for safe containers.
Container Serial Number
A seven digit serial number (6 plus 1 Check Digit) that forms the second part of a container identification number.
Container Service Charges
Charges to be paid by cargo interests as per tariff.
Container Size Code
An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height. See also Size/Type ISO6346.
Container Size/Type
Description of the size and type of a freight container or similar unit load device as specified in ISO6346.
Container Stack
Two or more containers, one placed above the other forming a vertical column.
See also stack.
Container Sublease
Contract by which a carrier gives the use of containers to another carrier for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.
Container Terminal
Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a means of transport.

Container Type Code
Two digits, the first of which indicates the category and the second of which indicates certain physical characteristics or other attributes.
See also container Size/Type ISO6346.
Container Yard
Abbreviation: CY
A facility at which FCL traffic and empty containers are received from or delivered to the Merchant by or on behalf of the Carrier.
Note: Often this yard is used to receive goods on behalf of the merchant and pack these in containers for FCL traffic.
Synonym: Marshalling Yard.
Containerized
Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.
Contraband
Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.
Contract
An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other or both.
Contract Logistics
The contracting out of all the warehousing, transport and distribution activities or a part thereof by manufacturing companies.
Contract of Affreightment
An agreement whereby the ship owner agrees to carry goods by water, or furnishes a vessel for the purpose of carrying goods by water, in return for a sum of money called freight. There are two forms: the charter party and the contract contained in the Bill of Lading.
Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service
A technical information service based on the integration of databases (contractor , subcontractor, and government ) contractually established and managed by the defense contractor to receive, maintain, and provide access to technical and support information on a defense system.
Contractual Port of Loading
A port at which an ocean vessel does not call, but which is equalized with the actual port of call and upon which inland haulage services and inland tariffs are based.
Synonym: Commercial POL/POD.
Note: Generally speaking it is seen as the port to be mentioned on the B/L from which cargo is accepted (e.g delivered by the consignee for sea transport).
Control
The registration and check on data and activities as well as determining supervising procedures and changes related to procedures.
Conventional Cargo
See Break Bulk Cargo.
Convertor Dolly
An auxiliary undercarriage assembly consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel and towbar used to convert a semitrailer or a container chassis to a full trailer.
Conveyance
Transport of goods from one place to another.
Conveyor
A mechanical device in the form of a continuous belt for transporting cargo.
Core Competence
The combination of individual skills and use of technologies that underlay the various products and or services of a business.
Corner Fittings
Fittings located at the corners of containers providing means of supporting, stacking, handling and securing the container.
Synonym: corner casting.
Corner Post
Vertical structural member at either side of an 'end frame' of a container joining a top and a bottom corner fitting (and thereby forming a 'corner structure').
Correction Message
A substitution for what has been wrong in a prior data interchange between computers in accordance with interchange agreements.
Co-shippership
See Co-makership.
Cost, Insurance and Freight (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: CIF
COT
The customer arranges his own transport of the container to and from the terminal or depot but agrees to restitute the container back to the terminal or depot.
Cost and Freight (...named port of destination)
"Cost and Freight" means that the seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.
The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the CPT term is more appropriate to use.
COU
See Clip On Unit.
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations
Abbreviation: CENSA
The main objectives of this organization are to promote and protect sound shipping policies in all sectors of shipping, to coordinate and present the views of its members and to exchange views with other shipowner groups.
Country of Departure
Country from which a certain means of transport is scheduled to depart or has departed.
Country of Despatch
Country from which the goods are shipped.
Country of Origin
Country in which the goods have been produced or manufactured, according to criteria laid down for the purpose of application of the customs tariff, of quantitative restrictions, or of any other measure related to trade.
Country of Provenance
The country from which goods or cargo are sent to the importing country.
CPT
See Carriage Paid To (...named place of destination).
Crane
A machine designed for moving and lifting weight by means of a movable projecting arm or a horizontal beam which is able to travel over a certain distance.
Crew Member
Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).
Critical mass
When enough buyers and sellers participate in a Net market so goods or services change hands efficiently. Also, the time when a market gains momentum, achieves liquidity, and becomes a more efficient way to buy or sell than the traditional physical market or channel. (See network effect, liquidity.)
Critical Path Method
A network planning technique used for planning and controlling the activities in a project. By showing each of these activities and their associated times, the 'critical path' can be determined. The critical path is the series of successive activities which takes up most time and is therefore decisive for the total lead time of the project.
Cross Trades
Term used in shipping for the services of a vessel between nations other than the nation in which the vessel is registered (UNCTAD).
Cruise Ship
A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group programme and accommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at one or more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark or disembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.
CSC
See Container Safety Convention.
CTD
See Combined Transport Document.
CTO
See Combined Transport Operator.
Currency
A medium of exchange of value, defined by reference to the geographical location of the authorities responsible for it ISO4217.
In general, the monetary unit, involved in a transaction and represented by a name or a symbol.
Currency Adjustment Factor
Abbreviation: CAF
Adjustment applied by shipping lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
Customer
See Client.
Customer Pick Up
Cargo picked up by a customer at a warehouse.
Customer Service
The way in which during a commercial relationship the wishes and demands of the (prospective) client are catered for.
Supporting activities at the customer interface adding value to a product (CEN273).
Customer Service Level
A performance measure of customer service.
Note: generally this is seen as the degree with which customer orders can be executed, in accordance with the terms which are generally accepted in the market.
Customs
The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes on imported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goods e.g. allowed quota, prohibited goods.
Customs Broker
An authorized agent specialized in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.
Customs Clearance Agent
Customs Invoice
Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states the invoice or other price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.
Customs Value
The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.
CWE
See Cleared Without Examination.
CY
See Container Yard.
CYC
Container Yard Charges - Charges at destination
Cybernetics
The study of control processes in mechanical, biological, electrical and information systems.

Cycle Stock
That portion of stock available or planned to be available in a give period for normal demand, excluding excess stock and safety stock.
Form on which physical damage is recorded (e.g.containers).

Damaged Cargo Report
Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
Dangerous Goods
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
Dangerous Goods Declaration
Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.
Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate
A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.
Data Plate
A metal identification plate affixed to a container which displays among others the gross and tare weights and external dimensions.
DDP - Delivered duty paid
The seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto, cleared for importation.
If the parties wish to exclude from the seller's obligations some of the costs payable upon importation of the goods (such as value added tax (VAT)), this should be made clear by adding words to this effect: "Delivered duty paid, VAT unpaid (...named place of destination)".
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport.
DDU
See Delivered Duty Unpaid (...named place of destination).
Deadload
The difference between the actual and calculated ship's draft.
Deadweight
Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The deadweight is expressed in tons.
Decision Support System
Abbreviation: DSS
An interactive computer-based system which generates a number of alternatives to solve an unstructured problem. These alternatives are being interpreted by the manager (decision-maker), whereafter he decides which alternative is to be used to solve the problem.
Deck
Any extended horizontal structure in a vessel or an aircraft, serving as a floor and structural support, covering, partially or fully, a portion of the vessel or aircraft.
Declaration of Origin
Appropriate statement as to the origin of the goods, made in connection with their exportation by the manufacturer, producer, supplier, exporter or other competent person on the commercial invoice or any document relating to goods.
Declared Value for Carriage
The value of the goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purpose of determining charges or of establishing the limit of the carrier's liability for loss, damage or delay. It is also the basis for possible applicable valuation charges.
Decoupling Inventory
A stock retained to make the independent control of two successive operations possible.
Decoupling Point
The point in the supply chain which provides a buffer between differing input and output rates.
Deep Tank
Tank fitted and equipped for the carriage of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and coconut oil) and other liquids in bulk. By means of oil-tight bulkheads and/or decks it is possible to carry different kinds of liquid in adjacent tanks. Deep tanks may be equipped with heating facilities in order to carry and discharge oil at the required temperature (shipping).
Default Charge
A (standard) charge applicable for a trade, stretch or location.
In the absence of specifics (not otherwise specified/enumerated) a general amount has been set.
Degroupage
Splitting up shipments into small consignments.
Delivered At Frontier (...named place)
Abbreviation: DAF
Delivered Duty Paid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDP
Delivered Duty Unpaid (...named place of destination)
Abbreviation: DDU
Delivered Ex Quay (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DEQ
Delivered Ex Ship (...named port of destination)
Abbreviation: DES
Delivering Carrier
The carrier who delivers the consignment to the consignee or his agent (aircargo).
Delivery
The process of delivering the consignment to the consignee at the agreed place.
Delivery Instruction
Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.
Delivery Note
A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).
Delivery Order
A document issued by or on behalf of the carrier authorizing the release of import cargo identified thereon and manifested under a single Bill of Lading (shipping).
Delivery Party
The party to which goods are to be delivered.
Delivery Reliability
The proportion of total delivery occasions in which the time, place, quality and quantity of products delivered accords with the order.
Delivery Schedule
The required and/or agreed time of delivery of goods or services, purchased for a future period.
Delivery Time
The time between order and delivery.
Demand
The quantity of goods required by the market to be delivered in a particular period or at a specific date.
Demise Charter
A contract whereby the ship owner leases his vessel to the charterer for a period of time during which the whole use and management of the vessel passes to the charterer, which involves that the charterer is to pay all expenses for the operation and maintenance of the vessel. Officers and crew will become servants of the charterer.
A demise charter whereby the charterer has the right to place his own master and crew on board of the vessel is also called 'bareboat charter'.
Density of Commodity
The mass of a commodity to its volume.
Dependent Demand
A demand directly related to or derived from the demand for other items or end products. Dependent demands are therefore calculated, and need not and should not be forecast.
Depot
The place designated by the carrier where empty containers are kept in stock and received from or delivered to the container operators or merchants.
DEQ
See Delivered Ex Quay (...named port of destination).
Derrick
Lifting equipment on board a conventional vessel for loading and discharging cargo, consisting of a post attached to the deck and an inclined spar.
DES
See Delivered Ex Ship (...named port of destination).
Despatch
The process of sending goods.
Synonym: Dispatch.
Despatch Advice
Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Synonym: Despatch note.
Despatch Days
The days gained if the free time included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment is not fully used.
Destination
Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound.
The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage
Det Norske Veritas
Norwegian classification society.
Detention
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
See demurrage.
Detention Charge
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.
Deterioration
The downgrading of a product due to long storage, damage to packing or other external influences.
Devanning
See: Stripping, Unpacking.
Deviation from a Route
A divergence from the agreed or customary route.
Dimensions
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.
Direct Delivery
The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer.
Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).
Direct Interchange
Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).
Direct Route
The shortest operated route between two points.
Disbursement
Sums paid out by a ship's agent at a port and recovered from the carrier.
Discharge
The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft.
The landing of cargo.
Discrepancy
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
Discrete Code
A bar code in which the spaces between characters (intercharacter gaps) are not part of the code as each character begins and ends with a bar. The spaces can therefore vary in width, specified tolerances.
An example is Code 39.
Disintermediation
When a Net market bypasses a traditional channel, more directly linking buyers with suppliers
Dispatch
See Despatch.
Displacement
The weight of the quantity of water displaced by the vessel. The displacement of the vessel on her light draft represents the weight of the vessel ready for use including stores etc.
Disposable Pallet
Pallet intended to be discarded after a single cycle of use.
Synonym: One-way pallet, Expendable pallet.
Disposal Chain
A sequence of events in a goods-flow which gets rid of a specific good. This may include removal, recycling, waste dumping etc.
Disposal of Goods
The act of getting rid of goods.
Dispositioning
All activities relating to the inland movement of empty and or full containers.
Distribution
The set of activities which ensure the availability of goods in the desired quality, quantity, place and time for the customer.
See also: physical distribution.
Distribution Centre
A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
Synonym: Branch Warehouse.
Distribution Channel
The route by which a company distributes goods.
Distribution Requirements Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-I
The function of determining the need to replenish stock at branch warehouses.
Distribution Resource Planning
Abbreviation: DRP-II
The set of concepts, procedures and techniques, being an extension of DRP-I, for the effective planning and control of the physical distribution.
Divider
A vertically mounted partition in a compartment on board.
Synonym: Partition.
Dock Receipt
Document issued by a shipping line acknowledging that goods are received for shipment.
Document
Anything printed, written, relied upon to record or prove something.
Document Holder
Usually fastened to the door on the front of a container. May contain e.g. a certificate of approval of the container.
Document of Title
A term to mean that possession of the specified document entitles the holder to control of the goods listed in that document.
Documentary Credit
The basis of international trade by means of which payment is made against surrender of the specified documents.
Door Lock Bars
See Bars.
Double Banking
Two vessels moored alongside each other on a certain berth.
Double-deck Pallet
Flat pallet with a top and bottom deck.
Down Time
The period of time when a machine is not available for production due to a functional failure or maintenance.
Draft
The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Synonym: Draught.
Draught
See Draft.
Drawback
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.
Drayage
The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides. (dray)
Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.
Synonym: Connecting Road Haulage
Drilling Rig
A structure, which drills wells in the bottom in order to search for oil.
DRIVE
Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle Safety in Europe, a major initiative begun in 1988 to apply information technology to the improvement of road safety and the reduction of environmental pollution by road traffic.
Acronym: DRIVE
Drop off Charge
Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The dropoff charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.
DRP-I
See Distribution Requirements Planning.
DRP-II
See Distribution Resource Planning.
Dry Bulk Container
Container consisting of a cargo-carrying structure, firmly secured within a framework, for the carriage of dry solids in bulk without packaging.
Containers of this type have type codes 80 and 81.
Dry Cargo Container
Shipping container which is designed for the carriage of goods other than liquids.
DSS
See Decision Support System.
Dunnage
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
Duty Free Zone
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.
DWT
See Deadweight

Econometric Models
A system of simultaneous equations for forecasting, based on mutual dependency among the variables used.
Economic Speed
That speed of a means of transport which produces the best possible financial result for the owner. Such speed should not be in excess of the maximum or minimum output allowed for the engine(s).
Economy of Scale
A phenomenon which encourages the production of larger volumes of a commodity to reduce its unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a greater quantity.
ECSI - Export Cargo Shipping Instruction/Preadvice
Instructions from shipper with details of all parties involved and description of goods.
EDI
See Electronic Data Interchange.
EDI For Administration, Commerce and Transport
United Nations rules for Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport. They comprise a set of internationally agreed upon standards, directories and guidelines for the electronic interchange of structured data related to trade in goods and services between independent computerized information systems.
EDIFACT
See Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport.
EDP
See Electronic Data Processing.
EDR
See Equipment Damage Report.
EFTA - European Free Trade Association
Comprising Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
EHA (Equipment Handover Agreement), Interchange (Fr)
An agreement acknowledging the condition of the carrier's equipment when handed over and returned, which includes the terms of contract under which the equipment was taken over.
EIR
See Equipment Interchange Receipt.
Electronic Commerce
The end-to-end digital exchange of all information needed to conduct business. Examples include EDI transactions, electronic mail, archives, audit trails, and all forms of records, including graphical images.
Electronic Data Interchange
Abbreviation: EDI
The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.
Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport
Abbreviation: EDIFACT
The ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.
Electronic Data Processing
Abbreviation: EDP
The computerized handling of information (e.g. business data).
Elevator
Equipment used to discharge some bulk cargoes such as grain which is removed from the hold by a continuous line of buckets or by suction and carried on a conveyor belt to store.
Embargo
A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports.
The refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof, and to or from any area or point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity, type of class of cargo duly tendered.
Emergency Medical Service
Abbreviation: EMS
Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.
EMS
See Emergency Medical Service.
Endorsement
The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee's signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.
Enquiry
Document issued by a party interested in the purchase of goods specified therein and indicating particular, desirable conditions regarding delivery terms, etc., addressed to a prospective supplier with a view to obtaining an offer.
Enterprise
An organization created to provide products and/or services to customers.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Complex applications used by large enterprises to manage inventory and integrate business processes across multiple divisions and organizational boundaries, frequently the application backbone in many large enterprises.
Equipment
Material resources necessary to facilitate the transport and handling of cargo. Transport equipment does under the given circumstances not have the ability to move by its own propulsion (e.g. sea container, trailer, unit load device, pallet).
Equipment Damage Report
Abbreviation: EDR
Written statement concerning damage to equipment, based on a physical inspection.
Equipment Interchange Receipt
Abbreviation: EIR
Physical inspection and transfer receipt.
Estimated Delivery Date
The date and time a package or shipment is expected to be delivered to a given destination.
Acronym: EDD
Estimated Time of Arrival
Abbreviation: ETA
The expected date and time of arrival in a certain port.
Synonym: Expected time of arrival.
Estimated Time of Departure
Abbreviation: ETD
The expected date and time when a certain port is left.
Synonym: Expected time of departure.
European Pallet Pool
Pool for the exchange of standard size pallets (the so-called Europallets) in European cargo traffic, formed in 1961 by a number of European rail administrators.
European Article Numbering Association
Abbreviation: EAN
An international body responsible for administering the European Article Numbering system. It has affiliates in many countries such as: CCG in West Germany, DCC in Japan, ANA in the United Kingdom.
Note: The North American body responsible for the Uniform Product Code (UPC) coding is the Uniform Code Council. (UPC is considered a subset of EAN).
European Zone Charge
Abbreviation: EZC
A charge for inland haulage transport in case of carrier haulage in Europe.
Even Keel
Said of a vessel which is balanced in such a way that the draft forward and aft is the same as the draft in the midship of the vessel on both sides.
Event
An occurrence.
Ex Works (...named place)
"Ex works" means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, he is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller. This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out directly or indirectly the export formalities. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used.
Excess
Going over the prescribed amount or degree e.g. excess luggage is luggage of which the weight is over the weight for free carriage.
Excess Stock
That portion of stock on hand which is over and above the desired stock level.
Exchanges
Two-sided marketplaces where buyers and suppliers negotiate prices, usually with a bid and ask system, and where prices move both up and down. Work best with easily definable products without complicated attributes--commodities, perishable items such as food, or intangibles such as electric power. Produce fluctuating, sometimes volatile prices. Particularly appropriate if a true market price is difficult to discover. Also work where brokers make high margins by buying low and selling high to purchasers who don't know the original sellers. Examples: Altra (energy), Paper Exchange (paper products), GoFish.com (frozen fish), Arbinet (telecommunications bandwidth). Synonyms: digital exchange, online exchange, dynamic exchange, dynamic trading exchange.
Exchange Rate
The rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another, usually expressed as the value of the one in terms of the other.
Execution
The actual act of carrying out a task.
Exemption Clause
A clause in a contract, which relieves the carrier's responsibility for certain events.
Synonym: Exceptions Clause.
Exempt Carrier
Company which transports commodities exempted from Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) economic regulation.
Expected
Likely to occur or appear.
Expediting
The 'rushing' or 'chasing' of production or purchase orders which are needed in less than the normal lead time.
Expendable Pallet
See disposable pallet.
Synonym: One Way Pallet.
Expenses
Costs paid out in connection with booking of cargo and arranging transport (e.g. commission).
Expiration
Termination of a certain period.
Exponential market
Where one party can be both a buyer and seller.Both buyers and sellers benefit when a new participant joins because fewer participants are needed to create higher volumes. Grow faster than linear markets. Require well-defined or commoditized products to make purchase and sale easy. Transaction costs must be low to keep the market liquid. Examples: Altra (energy), e-Steel, MetalSite. Synonym: circular market. Antonym: linear market.
Export
The process of carrying or sending goods to another country or countries, especially for purposes of use or sale in the country of destination. The sale of products to clients abroad.
Export Declaration
A document required by the U.S. Treasury Department and completed by a shipper indicating the contents, value, and destination of an export shipment.
Export Licence
Document granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time.
Export Packer
Company, packing goods for export.
Exporter
The party responsible for the export of goods.
Extract
Summary or copy of something written, e.g. used in connection with the log book.
EXW
See Ex Works (...named place).
EZC
See European Zone Charge.

Fabrication
A term used to distinguish manufacturing operations for components as opposed to assembly operations.
Factory Delivery
The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.
Fairway
A navigable channel for vessels, often the regular or prescribed track a vessel will follow in order to avoid dangerous circumstances.
FAK
See Freight All Kinds.
FAL
Facilitation Committee of the IMO.
Fantainer
Identical to a GP but is fitted with an electric extraction fan for carriage of cargoes prone to condensation. 20' only
FAS
See Free Alongside Ship (...named port of shipment).
Fashion Transport
Transport of clothing and/or garments including shoes, belts and handbags in dedicated means of transport. FCA
See Free Carrier (...named place).
FCC
See Fully Cellular Containership.
FCL
See full container load.
Feed Back
The flow of information back into the control system so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance.
Feeder
A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.
Fender
An appliance made of rubber, timber and/or rope or other materials normally attached to a dock or quay used to prevent damage to the hull of a vessel especially during mooring and un-mooring operations.
FEU
See Forty Foot Equivalent Unit.
FIFO
See First In First Out.
Fifth Wheel
Circular or wheel-shaped bearing mechanism, secured on the rear of the chassis of a truck-tractorm that engages the semi-trailer king pin with a spring lock device and supports the weight of the front end of the semi-trailer.
FILO
See Free In Liner Out.
FIO
See Free In and Out.
First In First Out
Abbreviation: FIFO
The method whereby the goods which have been longest in stock (first in) are used, delivered (sold) and/or consumed first (first out).
Fixed Crane
A crane of which the principal structure is mounted on permanent or semi permanent foundations.
Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck
Truck carrying its load on a non-elevating platform.
Synonym: Fixed platform truck.
Fixed Platform Truck
See Fixed Height Load-carrying Truck.
Flag
An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.
Flammable
Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances.
(Amendment 25 IMO DGS).
Flash Point
The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.
Flat
See Flat Rack.
Flat Bed Trailer
A wheeled trailer or a semi-trailer with a flat cargo carrying surface or deck and without any superstructure.
Flat Pack
Garments packed in cardboard boxes.
Flat Rack
A flat bed with fixed ends suitable for the carriage of cargo of excessive width and plated for carriage of heavy loads. 20' and 40'
Fleet
Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.
Flexibility
The extent to which and the rate at which adjustments to changed circumstances are possible.
Flexible Computer Integrated Manufacturing
FCIM is the integration of equipment, software, communication, human resources, and business practices within an enterprise to rapidly manufacture, repair, and deliver items on demand with continuous improvements in the processes. The FCIM initiative is a Joint Service and Agency effort to establish and implement the procedures and processes needed.
Acronym: FCIM
Flexitanks
A large polythene liner which can be fitted inside a 20'GP for the transportation of non-hazardous liquids
Flight Member
A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time.
Flight Number
A combination of two letters, indicating the airline, and three or four digits indicating the number of the voyage.
Synonym: Line Number.
Floating
Freely suspending in water of an object.
Floating Crane
A crane mounted on a barge or pontoon, which can be towed or is self propelled.
Floating Dock
A floating structure that can be partially submerged to enable vessels to enter and to leave and which can be raised for use as a dry dock.
Floating Stock
See Pipeline Inventory.
Flow Chart
A diagram, using symbols and depicting the sequence of events that should take place in a complex set of tasks.
Flow control
A term often used to describe a specific production control system.
Flow Line
The direction of flow in which e.g. pallets have been positioned and stowed.
Flow of materials
The flow of materials and components which goes to and through the factory for the production process.
FMC
Federal Maritime Commission (Control of shipping acts USA)
FOB
See Free On Board (...named port of shipment).
Fo'c's'le
See Forecastle.
Force Majeure
Circumstance which is beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract and which may, according to the terms and conditions, relieve that party of liability for failing to execute the contract.
Synonym: Act of God.
Fore and Aft Stowage
Stowage from the bow to the stern (lengthwise), as opposed to stowage athwartships.
Forecast
An estimation or calculation in advance; a prediction.
The amount of cargo expected to be booked for a certain sailing of a vessel.
The number of containers expected to be used in a certain area, for steering purposes.
Forecastle
Abbreviation: Fo'c's'le.
Forward part of a vessel where stores, ropes and anchor chains are located.
Fork Lift Pockets
See Fork Pockets.
Fork Lift Truck
A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.
Fork Pockets
Openings or recesses in a side of a container for the entry of the forks of a fork lift truck.
Synonym: Fork Lift Pockets.
Formula of Camp
A mathematical formula on behalf of inventory management for calculating the optimum order quantity.

Forty Foot Equivalent Unit
Abbreviation: FEU
Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty feet shipping container.
Forward
At, near or towards the bow or front of a vessel or an aircraft.
Forwarder The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.
Synonym: Freight Forwarder.
Forwarding Instruction
Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.
Four Way Pallet
A pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of e.g. a fork lift truck at all four sides.
Fragile
Easily breakable. Term denoting that goods should be handled with care.
Fragmentation
Market condition when there is no dominant group of buyers or suppliers, but where many buyers are chasing many suppliers, often inefficiently.
Franchise
Amount which in case of damage will have to be borne by the assured.
Free Airport
See Free Trade Zone.
Free Alongside Ship (...named port of shipment)
Abbreviation: FAS
Free Circulation, Libre Circulation
The movement of goods within the European Community without the need to pay any duty.
Free House Unclear
Delivered at a certain destination without payment of certain duties or incurred costs.
Free Carrier (...named place)
Free Carrier" means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose within the place or range stipulated where the carrier shall take the goods into his charge. When, according to commercial practice, the seller's assistance is required in making the contract with the carrier (such as in rail or air transport) the seller may act at the buyer's risk and expense.
This term may be used for any mode of transport, including multimodal transport.
"Carrier" means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. If the buyer instructs the seller to deliver the cargo to a person, e.g. a freight forwarder who is not a "carrier", the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are in the custody of that person.
Free In and Out
Abbreviation: FIO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate excludes the costs of loading and discharging and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.
Free In Liner Out
Abbreviation: FILO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of discharging, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of loading and, if appropriate, stowage and lashing.
Free Lift
The maximum elevation of the forks of a fork lift truck.
Free On Board (...named port of shipment)
"Free on Board" means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point.
The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off transport, the FCA term is more appropriate to use
Free Port
An international port or an area within an international port at which, crew, passengers, baggage, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be transhipped, without being subjected to any customs charges or duties. (Examination is possible for instance to meet security or narcotics control requirements.) Source: IMO.
Free Pratique
Permission granted by local medical authorities, denoting that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health so that people may embark and disembark.
Free Trade Zone
Abbreviation: FTZ
A part of the territory of a state where any goods introduced are generally regarded, in so far as import duties and taxes are concerned, as being exempted (Kyoto Convention).
Synonym: Free Port, Free Airport.
Freeboard of a Vessel
Vertical distance from the main deck to the surface of the water measured at the middle of the vessel's length.
Freight
The amount of money due for the carriage of goods and payable either in advance or upon delivery.
Freight All Kinds
Abbreviation: FAK
Single freight which is charged irrespective of the commodity.
Freight Collect
Freight and charges be paid by the consignee.
Freight Container
See Container.
Freight Costs
Costs incurred by the merchant in moving goods, by whatever means, from one place to another under the terms of the contract of carriage. In addition to transport costs this may include such elements as packing, documentation, loading, unloading and transport insurance.
Freight Forwarder
See Forwarder.
Freight Invoice
An itemized list of goods shipped and services rendered stating fees and charges.
Freight Manifest
A (cargo) manifest including all freight particulars.
Freight Prepaid
Freight and charges to be paid by the consignor.
Freight Ton
A unit for freighting cargo according to weight and/or cubic measurement.
Synonyms: Revenue ton, Bill of Lading ton.
Freighter
A vessel or an aircraft used for the carriage of cargo.
FTL
Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.
FTZ
See Free Trade Zone.
Full Container Load
Abbreviation: FCL
A container stuffed or stripped under risk and for account of the shipper and/or the consignee.
A general reference for identifying container loads of cargo loaded and/or discharged at merchants' premises.
Full Trailer
A truck trailer constructed in such way that its own weight and that of the cargo rest upon its own wheels, instead of being supported by e.g. a tractor.
Fully Cellular Containership
Abbreviation: FCC
A vessel specially designed to carry containers, with cell-guides under deck and necessary fittings and equipment on deck.
Fumigation
Treating of cargoes with gases to exterminate unwanted life forms.

Gantry Crane
A crane or hoisting machine mounted on a frame or structure spanning an intervening space, which often travels on rails.
Gateway
A point at which cargo is interchanged between carriers or modes of transport.
A means of access, an entry.
GATT
See General Agreement On Tariffs and Trade.
GCR
See General Cargo Rate and General Commodity Rate.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Abbreviation: GATT
Major international agreement on trade and tariffs between many nations all over the world.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Abbreviation: GATT
Major international agreement on trade and tariffs between many nations all over the world.
General Average
Abbreviation: G/A
Intentional act or sacrifice that is carried out to safeguard vessel and cargo. When a vessel is in danger, the master has the right to sacrifice property and/or to incur reasonable expenditure. Measures taken for the sole benefit of any particular interest are not considered general average.
General Average Act (York-Antwerp Rules)
There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.
General Average Statement
This shows in detail all general average costs and expenses and the contribution of each interest in the general average in proportion to its value.
General Cargo
Cargo, cosisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletized. General cargo can be shipped either in breakbulk or containerized.
Any consignment other than a consignment containing valuable cargo and charged for transport at general cargo rates (aircargo).
General Cargo Rate
Abbreviation: GCR
Synonym: General Commodity Rate.
The rate for the carriage of cargo other than a class rate or specific commodity rate.
General Commodity Rate
See General Cargo Rate.
General Purpose Container
A container used for the carriage of general cargo without any special requirements for the transport and or the conditioning of the goods.
Gen-set
Motor generator set as power source for e.g. thermal containers.
Germanischer Lloyd
German classification society.
Godown
A warehouse or cargo shed. This term is often used in the Far East.
Goods
Common term indicating movable property, merchandise or wares.
All materials which can be used to satisfy demands.
Whole or part of the cargo received from the shipper, including any equipment supplied by the shipper.
Goods Control Certificate
Document issued by a competent body evidencing the quality of goods described therein, in accordance with national or international standards, or conforming to legislation in the importing country, or as specified in the contract.
Goods Flow
The direction and path of the movement of goods and sequence of placement of those goods in a supply chain.
Goods in Transit
The goods which have departed from the initial loading point and not yet arrived at the final unloading point.
Synonyms: Stock in Transit, In Transit Inventory, Transportation Inventory.
Goods Item
A separate identifiable quantity of products or articles of a single type.
Goods Receipt
Document issued by a port, warehouse, shed, or terminal operator acknowledging receipt of goods specified therein on conditions stated or referred to in the document.
Gooseneck
Gooseneck shaped front end of a trailer or chassis.
Recess front bottom of a container to reduce the total height of the chassis plus container.
Grid Number
An indication of the position of a container in a bay plan by means of a combination of page number, column and line. The page number often represents the bay number.
Gross Manifest
A manifest containing freight details without any appropriate disbursements.
Gross Tonnage
Abbreviation: GRT
The measure of the overall size of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on measurement of vessels usually expressed in register ton.
Gross Weight
Weight (mass) of goods including packing, but excluding the carrier's equipment expressed in whole kilograms.
The weight of a shipment including materials necessary for blocking etc.
Gross Weight of Container
Total weight of container including cargo (in kilograms).
Groupage
The collection of several small consignments and the formation of one large shipment thereof (road cargo).
Groupage Agent, Groupeur (Fr)
One who consolidates LCL consignments to offer to a carrier as an FCL
Groupage Centre
A location where groupage takes place (roadcargo).

Hague Rules
International convention for the unification of certain rules, relating to Bills of Lading (1924). These Rules include the description of responsibilities of ocean carriers.
Hague-Visby Rules
Set of rules, published in 1968, amending the Hague Rules.
Half Height
Identical to the open top, but with 4'3" ends and not the standard 8'6". Suitable for the carriage of heavy cargo as the box weight is considerably less. 20' only
Hamburg Rules
United Nations Convention on the carriage of goods by sea of 1978 adopted in 1992.
Handling Instructions
Indication how cargo is to be handled.
Handling Service
Service concerning the physical handling of cargo.
Harbour
Place of shelter for vessels. Most of the time used as an indication for the geographical location.
Harmonized System
Abbreviation: HS
A numeric multi purpose system, developed by the Customs Cooperation Council, for the classification of goods with its six digits it covers about 5000 descriptions of the products or groups of products most commonly produced and traded. It is designed for customs services, but can also be used for statistics, transport purposes, export, import and manufacturing.
Hatch Cover
Watertight means of closing the hatchway of a vessel.
Hatch Way
Opening in the deck of a vessel through which cargo is loaded into, or discharged from the hold and which is closed by means of a hatch cover.
Haulage
The inland carriage of cargo or containers between named locations/points.
Synonym: Cartage.
Haulier
Road carrier.
H/C-High Cube
Identical to the GP, but with 9'6" sides and not the standard 8'6". 40' only
Heated Container
Thermal container served by a heat producing appliance.
Heavy Lift
Single commodity exceeding the capacity of normal loading equipment and requiring special equipment and rigging methods for handling.
Heavy Lift Vessel
A vessel specially designed and equipped for the carriage of heavy cargo.
Hedging
Buying or selling earlier and more than really needed in order to protect the company against price increases or shortages of commodities or components to realize profits when prices fluctuate.
Heuristic
The process of solving problems by evaluating each step in the progress, searching for satisfactory solutions rather than optimal solutions. It comprises a form of problem solving where the results are determined by experience or intuition instead of by optimization.
Hinterland
The inland area served by a certain port.
Hitchment Cargo
An amount of goods which is added to an original consignment as the owner and the destination are the same as those of the original consignment.
Hogged
Loading condition of a vessel in such a way that the centre of the vessel is slightly raised (arch-wise in the centre).
Hold
The space below the deck of a vessel, used to carry cargo.
Home Port
The port of registration of a vessel.
Horizontal market
Sell materials or services that any company needs, not those used for manufacturing or production. Services include MRO, benefits management, and procurement process management. Examples: Ariba Network, CommerceOne's MarketSite.net, EmployEase. Synonyms: functional market, hub. (See MRO.)
House Address
Place of receipt respectively delivery (name and address) in case of carrier haulage.
HS
See Harmonized System.
Hub
The central transhipment point in a transport structure, serving a number of consignees and/or consignors by means of spokes. The stretches between hubs mutually are referred to as trunks.
Huckepack Carriage
See Piggyback.
Hull
Outer shell of a vessel, made of steel plates or other suitable material to keep water outside the vessel.
Husbanding
Taking care of a vessel's non cargo related operations as instructed the by the master or owner of such vessel.

IACS
See International Association of Classification Societies.
IATA
See International Air Transport Association.
IATA Cargo Agent
An agent approved by IATA and registered in the IATA Cargo Agency List. This enables the agent, upon authorization of the IATA carrier, to receive shipments, to execute Air Waybills and to collect charges (aircargo).
IATA Member
An airline which is a member of IATA (aircargo).
ICAO
See International Civil Aviation Organization.
ICD
See Inland Clearance Depot.
ICHCA
International Cargo Handling Coordinating Association.
ICS
See International Chamber of Shipping.
Identification
The unique data, e.g. name, number or code, determining a certain object or person.
Idle Time
The amount of ineffective time whereby the available resources are not used e.g. a container in a yard.
Ignition
Setting on fire or catching fire.
The point at which a market gains momentum, liquidity is achieved, and the Net market becomes a more efficient means of buying and selling than the traditional physical market or channel. (Related term: Critical mass, liquidity, network effect.)
ILO
See International Labour Organization.
IMDG Code
See International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
IMGS
See International Medical Guide for Ships.
IMO
See International Maritime Organization.
Importer
The party responsible for the import of goods.
For customs purposes it is the party who makes, or on whose behalf an agent makes, an import declaration. This party may be the party who has possession of the goods or to whom the goods are consigned.
In Transit
The status of goods or persons between the outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.
Incoterms
Trade terms in coded form as established by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1953, whereafter they have been regularly updated. (Last update 1990).
The terms represent a set of international rules for the interpretation of the principal terms of delivery used in trade contracts.
Indemnification
Compensation for a loss and/or the expenses incurred.
Independent Demand
A demand which is unrelated to demand for other products. Demand for finished goods, parts required for destructive testing and service parts requirements are examples of independent demand.
Indirect Route
Any route other than the direct route.
Infomediary (consumer)
Trusted third parties that act as custodian, agent, or broker of customer information, marketing it to businesses on the consumer's behalf while protecting consumer privacy
Infomediary (business)
Third party that provides research, competitive information, and advice on products or services to help buyers make informed buying decisions. TestMart, for example, tells engineers whether a test and measurement device is Y2K compliant, whether manuals are in stock, warranties available on secondary equipment, etc. Synonyms: lead generator, vertical portal.
Information portal
Create, install. and host personalized Yahoo-like information portals for enterprises and their employees. Suppliers: Aeneid, Moreover. Synonym: vertical portal.
Infrastructure
System of roads, waterways, airfields, ports and/or telecommunication networks in a certain area.
Inland Clearance Depot
Abbreviation: ICD
Inland location where cargo, particularly containerized, may be cleared by customs.
Inland Waterways Bill of Lading
Transport document made out to a named person, to order or to bearer, signed by the carrier and handed to the sender after receipt of the goods.
Insulated Container
Thermal container without the use of devices for cooling and/or heating.
Insulated Tank Container
Container frame holding one or more thermal insulated tanks for liquids.
Insurance
A system of protection against loss under which a party agrees to pay a certain sum (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for loss or damage.
Insurance Certificate
Proof of an insurance contract.
Insurance Company
The party covering the risks of the issued goods and/or services that are insured.
Integrated Logistics Support
The systematic approach applied to simultaneous management and acquisition of equipment and related logistics support, in order to provide the customer with a desired level of availability. Resulting in an optimum life cycle cost and to maintain this level through the entire life cycle.
Interchange
Reciprocal exchange of e.g. information between two or more parties.
Intercoastal
As opposite to coastal water operations, intercoastal refers to water transport carried out between coasts (e.g. between pacific and atlantic coasts).
Intercontainer
A co-operative formed by 19 European Railways, for the management of international rail container traffic in Europe.
Interline
Two or more road transport companies joining operations to bring cargo to a certain destination.
Intermediary
Aggregates data and facilitates transactions by bringing buyers and sellers together. Internet-based intermediaries create multivendor, multiproduct marketplaces.
Intermodal Transport
The movement of goods (containers) in one and the same loading unit or vehicle which uses successively several modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves in changing modes.
International Air Transport Association
Abbreviation: IATA
An international organization of airlines, founded in 1945, with the aim of promoting the commercial air traffic. This should be achieved by cooperation between parties concerned and by performance of certain rules, procedures and tariffs, regarding both cargo and passengers, by those parties.
International Association of Classification Societies
Abbreviation: IACS
An organization in which the major classification societies, among others American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping and Germanischer Lloyd, are joined, whose principal aim is the improvement of standards concerning safety at sea.
International Carriage
Carriage whereby the place of departure and any place of landing are situated in more than one country (aircargo).
International Chamber of Shipping
Abbreviation: ICS
A voluntary organization of national shipowner' associations with the objective to promote interests of its members, primarily in the technical and legal fields of shipping operations.
International Civil Aviation Organization
Abbreviation: ICAO
An international organization of governments, dealing with search and rescue in distress, weather information, telecommunications and navigational requirements.
International Labour Organization
Abbreviation: ILO
An United Nations agency, dealing with employment rights and working conditions, covering work at sea and in ports.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
Abbreviation: IMDG Code
A code, representing the classification of dangerous goods as defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in compliance with international legal requirements.
International Maritime Organization
Abbreviation: IMO
An United Nations agency concerned with safety at sea. Its work includes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of vessels, load lines, pollution and the carriage of dangerous goods.
Its previous name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO).
International Medical Guide for Ships
Abbreviation: IMGS
'The doctor at sea'.
International Organization for Standardization
Abbreviation: ISO
A worldwide federation of national standards institutes (ISO member bodies).
International Safety Management code
This international standard for the safe management and operation of ships prescribes rules for the organization of a shipping company management in the context of safety and pollution prevention and requires the development and implementation of a safety management system.
International Transport and Information System
Abbreviation: INTIS
An organization with the aim to improve the position of the port of Rotterdam by the development, realization and exploitation of a communication- and information network for computers.
INTIS
See International Transport and Information System.
Inventory
A detailed list of goods located in a certain space or belonging to a specified object.
Goods available for satisfying certain demands. Inventories may consist of finished goods ready for sale, they may be parts or intermediate items, they may be work in process, or they may be raw materials.
Synonym: Stock.
Invoice
An account from the supplier, for goods and/or services supplied by him.
ISO
See International Organization for Standardization.
Item
Separate article or unit.
Itinerary
The route of a means of transport, indicated by the names of the ports of call or other locations, often including estimated arrival and departure dates.

Jettison
The act of intentionally throwing cargo overboard e.g. with the objective of lightening a vessel, which has run aground, such for the common good of all interests: vessel, crew and remaining cargo (see GA).
Jetty
A mole or breakwater, running out into the sea to protect harbour or coast. It is sometimes used as a landing-pier.
Jib
Projecting arm of a crane.
Attachment connected to the top of a crane boom.
JIT
See Just In Time.
Job
That work which is undertaken to meet a customer or production order and, for production control purposes, has a unique identification.
Joint Venture
A joint activity of two or more companies, usually performed under a common name.
Jurisprudence
Juridical decisions used for explanation and meaning of law.
Just In Time
Abbreviation: JIT
The movement of material/goods at the necessary place at the necessary time.
The implication is that each operation is closely synchronized with the subsequent ones to make that possible.
A method of inventory control that brings stock into the production process, warehouse or to the customer just in time to be used, thus reducing stock piling.

Kanban
A method which during storage uses standard units or lot sizes with a single card attached to each.
A pull system used at a stock point in which a supply batch is ordered only when a previous batch is withdrawn.
Note: Kanban in Japanese means loosely translated 'card or sign'.
Keel
Longitudinal girder at the lowest point of a vessel from which the framework is built.
Kind of Packing
Description of the packaging material used for goods to be transported.
King pin
The coupling pin, welded or bolted in the centre of the front underside of a semi-trailer chassis, which couples to the fifth wheel of the towing tractor or dolly convertor.
Knot
Unit of measurement for the speed (of a vessel) equal to a nautical mile (= 1852 metres) per hour.
Kyoto Convention
The convention for the International Customs Cooperation Council held in Kyoto in 1973 for the simplification and harmonization of national customs procedures.

Label
A slip of e.g. paper or metal attached to an object to indicate the nature, ownership, destination, contents and/or other particulars of the object.
Laden Vessel
See Loaden Vessel.
Land Bridge
Overland transport between following and/or preceding sea transport of goods and/or containers.
Lash
To hold goods in position by the use of e.g. wires, ropes, chains and straps.
See Lighter Aboard Ship.
Lashing Point
Point on a means of transport to which wires, chains, ropes or straps, which are used to hold goods in position, are attached.
Last In First Out
Abbreviation: LIFO
A method of which the assumption is that the most recently received (last in) is the first to be used or sold (first out).
Lateral and Front Stacking Truck
High-lift stacking truck capable of stacking and retrieving loads ahead and on either or both sides of the driving direction.
Latitude
The angular distance of a position on its meridian north or south from the equator, measured in degrees ('a vessel at 25 degrees north latitude').
Lattice vortex network
Term coined by Mohanbir Sawhney and Steven Kaplan to describe how vertical and functional markets intersect and partner.
Lay Days
The number of days allowed in a charter party for the loading and discharging of cargo. Lay days may be indicated in different ways e.g. consecutive days, working days, weather working days.
Layout Key
See United Nations Layout Key.
Lay Up a Vessel
Temporary cessation of trading of a vessel by the shipowner.
L/C
See Letter of Credit.
LCL
See Less than Container Load.
Lead generation
Typically seller-driven, they derive revenue from ads, commissions on sales, or fees for delivering qualified leads to suppliers. Also may generate RFPs (requests for proposals) and RFQs (requests for quotes) for buyers. Provide value by understanding information needs of their users and integrating and aggregating content, information and transactions for buyers and sellers. Most lead generation markets seek to migrate to transaction-oriented catalog aggregation model. Examples: PhotonicsOnline.com (lasers), SolidwasteOnline.com (sewage treatment systems), PlasticsNet.com, Questlink.com (electronic components).
Lead Time
The amount of time between the request of a service and the actual provision of this service.
A span of time required to perform an activity. In a logistics context, the time between the initiation of a process and its completion.
Lease
A contract by which one party gives to another party the use of property or equipment, e.g. containers, for a specified time against fixed payments.
Leasing Company
The company from which property or equipment is taken on lease.
Leasing Contract
A contract for the leasing of property or equipment.
Less than Container Load
Abbreviation: LCL
A general reference for identifying cargo in any quantity intended for carriage in a container, where the Carrier is responsible for packing and/or unpacking the container.
For operational purposes a LCL (Less than full container load) container is considered a container in which multiple consignments or parts thereof are shipped.
Less than Truck Load
Abbreviation: LTL
A term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck.
Lessee
The party to whom the possession of specified property has been conveyed for a period of time in return for rental payments.
Lessor
The party who conveys specified property to another for a period of time in return for the receipt of rent.
Letter of Credit
Abbreviation: L/C
A written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents.
Lien
A legal claim upon real or personal property to pay a debt or duty.
Life Cycle Cost
Encompasses all costs associated with the product's life cycle. These include all costs involved in acquisition (research & development, design, production & construction, and phase-in), operation, support and disposal of the product.
Lifetime value of the customer
The amount a customer spends over time with a supplier minus the cost of acquiring the customer. Both vertical and horizontal Net markets have promised investors they will "own" the b2b customer, become the default buying option, and thus have customers with a higher lifetime value than consumer e-commerce businesses. That promise has slowed development of partnerships between vertical and horizontal markets.
LIFO
See Last In First Out.
See Liner In Free Out.
Lift-On Lift-Off Vessel
Abbreviation: LOLO
Vessel of which the loading and discharging operations are carried out by cranes and derricks.
Lighter
See Barge.
Lighter Aboard Ship
Abbreviation: Lash
A vessel which carries barges.
Lighterage
The carriage of goods within a port area by a barge, e.g. from a vessel to a quay.
Lightweight
Weight of an empty vessel including equipment and outfit, spare parts required by the regulatory bodies, machinery in working condition and liquids in the systems, but excluding liquids in the storage tanks, stores and crew.
Line Item
See order line.
Line Number
See Flight Number.
Linear Programming
A mathematical procedure for minimizing or maximizing a linear function of several variables, subject to a finite number of linear restrictions on these variables.
Liner Conference
A group of two or more vessel-operating carriers, which provides international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular trade route and which has an agreement or arrangement to operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern Freight Conference).
Liner In Free Out
Abbreviation: LIFO
Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of loading, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of discharging.
Liner Shipping Company
A company transporting goods over sea in a regular service.
Liner Terms
Condition of carriage denoting that costs for loading and unloading are borne by the carrier subject the custom of the port concerned.
Liner Service
The connection through vessels between ports within a trade.
Linear market
When products move from one end of the supply chain to the other, typical of traditional markets and manufactured goods. Adding a seller primarily benefits buyers, and adding a buyer mainly benefits sellers. Antonym: exponential market.
Liquidity
Volume of transactions. With enough buyers and sellers, a market has continuous bidding, offers, and consummated transactions, and market liquidity is achieved. (See critical mass, network effect.)
Live Stock
Cargo consisting of live animals, such as horses, cows, sheep and chickens.
Load
Quantity or nature of what is being carried. This term normally refers to transport by truck.
Load Factor Management
The process of maximising the utilization of the (slot) capacity of vessels and or other means of transport.
Loaden Vessel
Vessel where cargo has been put on board.
Synonym: Laden Vessel.
Loading
The process of bringing cargo into a means of transport or equipment.
Loading Platform
A flat surface to facilitate loading usually alongside a warehouse.
Loadmaster
A loadcalculator designed for a vessel approved by a classification bureau for the calculation of the vessels stability.
Locating Pin
See Cones.
Location
Any named geographical place, recognized by a competent national body, with permanent facilities used for goods movements associated with international trade, and used frequently for these purposes.
Geographical place such as a port, an airport, an inland freight terminal, a container freight station, a container yard, a container depot, a terminal or any other place where customs clearance and/or regular receipt or delivery of goods can take place.
An area (e.g.in a warehouse) marked off or designated for a specific purpose.
Lock
For marine purposes: A space, enclosed at the sides by walls and at each end by gates, by which a vessel can be floated up or down to a different level.
Locker
A compartment, in a shed or on board of a vessel, used as a safekeeping place to stow valuable goods, which can be secured by means of a lock.
Log Book
The daily report of all events and other relevant particulars of a vessel and attested by the proper authorities as a true record.
Logistics (CEN)
The planning, execution and control:

  • of the movement and placement of people and/or goods
  • and of the supporting activities related to such movement and placement within a system organized to achieve specific objectives

Logistics chain
All successive links involved in the logistic process.
LOLO
See Lift-On Lift-Off Vessel.
Longitude
The angular distance of a position on the equator east or west of the standard Greenwich meridian up to 180o east or west.
Lorry
Motor truck used for transport of goods.
Note: Motor truck is an American term. British synonym for motor truck is Heavy Goods Vehicle. This British term means any vehicle exceeding 7.5 metric tons maximum laden weight.
LTL
See Less than truck load.
Luffing Crane
A crane with which the load can be moved to or from the crane horizontally.
Luggage
Travellers' baggage, suitcases, boxes etc., normally accompanied by a passenger.
Lump-sum
An agreed sum of money, which is paid in full settlement at one time. This term is often used in connection with charter parties.

Lump-sum Charter
A voyage charter whereby the shipowner agrees to place the whole or a part of the vessel's capacity at the charterer's disposal for which a lump-sum freight is being paid.

Mafi Trailer
German brand name of a roll trailer used for RoRo purposes.
Maiden Trip
First voyage of a vessel or aircraft after delivery from new-building to her owner(s).
Maintenance Chain
A sequence of events in a goods flow which preserves and/or restores the value of a specific good. This may include: Repair.
Main-line Operator
Abbreviation: MLO
A carrier employing vessel(s) in the main or principal routes in a trade but not participating within a consortium.
Manifest
Document which lists the specifications of goods loaded in a means of transport or equipment for transportation purposes.
As a rule cargo manifests are drawn up by the agents in the place of loading.
Note: For shipping a manifest represents a cumulation of Bills of Lading for official and administrative purposes.
Manufacturers Plate
A plate indicating the name and address of the container manufacturer and particulars of the container.
Manufacturing Process
The producing of goods or wares by manual labour or machinery, often on a large scale and with division of labour.
Manufacturing Resource Planning
Abbreviation: MRP-II
A method for the effective planning of a manufacturing company, being a direct out-growth and extension of MRP-I.
Marine Insurance Policy
An insurance policy protecting the insured against loss or damage to his goods occurred during ocean transport.
Market Analysis
Systematic investigation of the growth and the composition of a market.
Market maker
In a stock exchange, market makers take ownership of shares, allowing people to buy and sell those goods from them. They also can make or lose money from price movements. Outside the financial community, market makers help match buyers and sellers, regardless of whether or not they take possession or own goods. (See Net market maker.)
Marketing
The process of organizing and directing all the company activities which relate to determining the market demand and converting the customers buying power into an effective demand for a service and bringing that service to the customer.
Marks
See Shipping Marks.
Mate's Receipt
A document signed by the chief officer of a vessel acknowledging the receipt of a certain consignment on board of that vessel. On this document, remarks can be made as to the order and condition of the consignment.
Master Production Schedule
Abbreviation: MPS
A realistic, detailed, manufacturing plan for which all possible demands upon the manufacturing facilities (such as available personnel, working hours, (management) policy and goals) have been considered and are visualized. The MPS is a statement of what the company expects to produce and purchase expressed in selected items, specific quantities and dates.
Material Requirements Planning
Abbreviation: MRP-I
An inventory and purchasing planning system that integrates product components, lead times and deadlines.
Materials Handling
The activities of loading, unloading, placing and manipulating material and of in-process movement.
Materials Management
The planning and control of the activities related to the materials flow from the suppliers up to the end of the conversion/production process.
MCO
See Miscellaneous Charge Order.
Means of Transport
Type of vehicle used for the transport of goods (e.g. aircraft, barge, truck, vessel or train).
Measurement Ton
A ton of one cubic meter water.
Mechanics Lien
The legal enforceable claim which a person who has performed work or provided materials is permitted to make against title to the property or as a preferential person in the event the estate or business is liquidated.
Medical First Aid Guide
Abbreviation: MFAG
Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.
Memo Bill
See Service Bill of Lading.
Merchant
For cargo carried under the terms and conditions of the Carrier's Bill of Lading and of a tariff, it means any trader or persons (e.g. Shipper, Consignee) and including anyone acting on their behalf, owning or entitled to possession of the goods.
Merchant Haulage
Inland transport of cargo in shipping containers arranged by the Merchant.
It includes empty container-moves to and from hand-over points in respect of containers released by the Carrier to Merchants.
Note: Carrier's responsibility under the Bill of Lading does not include the inland transport stretch under Merchant Haulage.
Merchant Inspired Carrier Haulage
Carrier haulage by a carrier, which is nominated by the shipper or receiver of the goods, but paid by the carrier.
Meta-centric Height
The distance between the centre of gravity of a vessel and a fictitious point. If the metra-centric height is zero or negative, the vessel will heel or capsize.
Metamediary
Besides providing a multi-vendor, multi-product marketplace, the metamediary provides additional services for market participants. These services can be offered directly by the metamediary, or the metamediary can invite third party service providers into its marketplace. Services provided could include quality assurance, procurement management, fulfillment, or payment settlement.
MFAG
See Medical First Aid Guide.
Minimum Charge
The lowest amount which applies to the transport of a consignment, irrespective of weight or volume (aircargo, shipping).
Minimum Inventory
The planned minimum allowable inventory for an independent demand item.
Minor Unit
Unit of recorded value (i.e. as recorded by banks) which is a division of the respective unit of currency.
Examples are the cent being a one hundredth part of the US Dollar.
Note: Some countries have minor units that are used in low-value coinage within a country or locality, but which are not used by the international banking system in making formal records of value. Examples: Belgium, Greece and Spain.
Miscellaneous Charge Order
Abbreviation: MCO
A document issued by a carrier or his agent requesting the issue of an appropriate passenger ticket and baggage cheque or revision of services to the person named in such document.
Mixed Consignment
A consignment of different commodities, articles or goods, packed or tied together or contained in separate packages (aircargo).
Mode of Transport
Method of transport used for the conveyance of goods, (e.g. by rail, by road, by sea).
Model
A representation of a process or system that attempts to relate the most important variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system.
Module
A separate and distinct unit of hardware or software that may be used as a component in a system.
Movement
The act or process of changing the position of an object and or people.
Movement Inventory
The inventory during a production process caused by the time required to move goods from one place to another.
MPC
See Multi Purpose Carrier.
MPS
See Master Production Schedule.
MRP-I
See Material Requirements Planning.
MRP-II
See Manufacturing Resource Planning.
MRO (Maintenance, repair, and operating equipment)
Routine purchases such as office supplies, travel services, or computers needed to run a business but not central to the business's output. Ariba and CommerceOne sell buy-side procurement software for MRO. (See horizontal market.)
MTO/Carrier
See Multimodal Transport Operator/Carrier.
Multiple Sourcing
Selecting of and working with more than two equivalent suppliers for a certain product.
Multi Purpose Carrier
See Multi Purpose Vessel.
Multi Purpose Vessel
Vessel designed for the carriage of different types of cargo: general, bulk, heavy and/or containerized cargo.
Synonym: Multi Purpose Carrier (MPC).
Multimodal Transport
The carriage of goods (containers) by at least two different modes of transport.
Multimodal Transport Document
See Combined Transport Document.

Multimodal Transport Operator/Carrier
Abbreviation: MTO/Carrier
The person on whose behalf the transport document or any document evidencing a contract of multimodal carriage of goods is issued and who is responsible for the carriage of goods pursuant to the contract of carriage.

Navigation
The act of determining position, location and course to the destination of an aircraft or a vessel.
Negligence
Imprudent action or omission which may cause injury, damage or loss.
Negotiable
In terms of documents, 'negotiable' means that e.g. a Bill of Lading is handed over/transferred in the right manner (viz. proper endorsement) to another person either endorsed in blank or endorsed to a person and that person acquires, by this transfer certain rights vis-a-vis the goods e.g. is entitled to take possession of the goods.
Net Manifest
A manifest containing all freight details including negotiated disbursements.
Net Market
An online intermediary that connects fragmented buyers and sellers. Net markets eliminate inefficiencies by aggregating offerings from many sellers or by matching buyers and sellers in an exchange or auction. For buyers, they lower purchasing costs while reaching new suppliers. For suppliers, they lower sales cost and reach new customers. A central hub where a trusted intermediary integrates both procedures and technology can save costs. Synonyms: infomediary, metamediary, electronic markets, e-markets, Internet markets, I-markets, vertical hubs, e-hubs, butterfly markets, vortex businesses, digital exchanges, online exchanges, fat butterfly.
Net market maker
A company creating an Internet market to match buyers and sellers. Doesn't necessarily own goods. (See market maker.)
Net Tonnage
The measure of the useful capacity of a vessel determined in accordance with the provisions of the international convention on tonnage measurement of vessels.
Net Weight
The weight of the goods, excluding all packing.
Network effect
Describes how all buyers and sellers benefit when a new market participant is added. The network effect produces a cycle with more buyers attracting more sellers and more sellers attracting more buyers. Robert Metcalfe created the notion that the value of a network grows by the square of the number of participants. Synonym: Metcalfe's Law. (See liquidity, critical mass.)
Network Planning System
A technique for making a time schedule for the implementation of a project.
Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier
Abbreviation: NVOCC
A party who undertakes to carry goods and issues in his own name a Bill of Lading for such carriage, without having the availability of any own means of transport.
Normal Charge
The specified general cargo rate without any quantity discount (aircargo).
Normal General Cargo Rate
The under 45 kgs rate or, if no under 45 kgs rate exists, the under 100 kgs rate (aircargo).
Synonym: Normal Rate.
Normalize
To create a consistent set of terms and product descriptions, often using industry-specific translation software. Primarily used by catalog aggregators, normalization technology requires translating schema or structures in product databases. (See ontology.)
Notice of Readiness
Written document or telex issued by the master of a vessel to the charterers advising them the moment when a vessel is ready to load or discharge.
Document advising a consignee or his agent that cargo has arrived and is ready for delivery.
Notify Address
Address of the party other than the consignee to be advised of the arrival of the goods.
Notify Party
The party to be notified of arrival of goods.
Nouvelles Frontiéres
A 1986 ruling by the Court of Justice which ruled that air transport was not exempt from EC competition policy.
NVOCC
See Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier.

Obsolete Stock
The products or materials that cannot be or is unlikely to be used in future processes and which is to be sold or disposed of through the usual outlets.
Offshore
Contracting work carried out at sea (e.g. drilling for oil).
Oil Bulk Ore Vessel
Abbreviation: OBO-Vessel
A vessel, designed for the carriage of either dry or liquid bulk cargo.
On-Board Computer
Cab-mounted device which electronically or mechanically records data such as truck speed, engine rpm, idle time and other information useful to trucking management.
Oncarriage
The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport to the place of delivery after discharge from the ocean vessel (main means of transport) at the port (place) of discharge.
Ontology
A Yahoo-like hierarchy of relationships and a glossary used as a standardization device to describe goods and services and to facilitate commerce in a Net market. (See normalize.)
One Way Pallet
See disposable pallet.
Note: The addition 'One Way' has nothing to do with the number of pallet sides in which the forks of e.g. a fork lift can enter, as opposed to the two and four way pallets.
Open Order
See Backlog.
Open Sided Container
Shipping container with frames with wire-mesh at the sides covered by means of a tarpaulin which can be dropped down to give unrestricted access to the sides of the container for loading or discharging.
Open Top Container
A freight container similar in all respects to a general purpose container except that it has no rigid roof but may have a flexible and movable or removable cover, for example one made of canvas or plastic or reinforced plastic material normally supported on movable or removable roof bows.
Operating Efficiency
A ratio of the actual output of a piece of equipment, department, or plant as compared to the planned or standard output.
Operations Research
The development and application of quantitative techniques to the solution of problems. More specifically, theory and methodology in mathematics, statistics, and computing are adapted and applied to the identification, formulation, solution, validation, implementation, and control of decision making problems.
Operator
The party responsible for the day to day operational management of certain premises such as ware-houses, terminals and vessels.
Optimal Trim
The best calculated TRIM related to speed engine capacity, fuel consumption for a specific sailing condition.
Optimization
Achieving the best possible solution to a problem in terms of a specified objective function.
Option
One of a limited range of choices or features that is offered to a customer when purchasing an otherwise basic standard product and that has to be an integral part of the product (used in commercial trading).
Optional Cargo
Cargo of which the final destination is not known at the moment of booking but will be indicated during the transport.
Optional Port
A port of which it is not known whether or not it will be called by a vessel during a voyage.
Order
A request to deliver specified quantities of goods or to render specific services. Order line
Each line on a customer's purchase order. An order line always contains one Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) only, but the number may vary.
Organization
An identifiable social unit with a particular responsibility which endeavour to achieve multiple goals by coordinated activities and relationships between members and objects.
Out of Gauge Cargo
Cargo which dimensions are exceeding the normal dimensions of a 20 or 40 feet container, e.g. overlength, overwidth, overheight, or combinations thereof.
Outsider
A carrier, which operates on a route served by a liner conference but which is not a member of that conference.
Outward Handling
The operations to be performed on outgoing goods from a production unit, both administrative and physical, starting at the moment forwarding orders can be executed to the moment of actual departure of the goods.
Overcarrier
A carrier within a consortium who carries cargo beyond the allotment distributed to him.
Overhaul
To extensively inspect and repair a system or component.
Overheight Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard height.
Overlength Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard length.
Overpack
A unit used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one handling unit for convenience of handling and stowage. Dangerous goods packages contained in the overpack must be properly packed, marked, labelled and in proper condition as required by the Regulations regarding dangerous goods (aircargo).
Overtime
Work beyond normal established working hours that usually requires a premium to be paid to the employees concerned.
Overwidth Cargo
Cargo, exceeding the standard width.
Owner
The legal owner of cargo, equipment or means of transport.
Owner's container Code
See Container Prefix.
Owner-Operator
Trucker who owns and operates his own truck(s).

Package
Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means.
The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling.
Synonym: Parcel.
Packaging
Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.
Packing
Any container or other covering in which goods are packed.
Packing Instruction
Document issued within an enterprise giving instructions on how goods are to be packed.
Packing List
Document specifying the contents of each individual package.
Packing Unit
A type of package where a standard quantity of products of a specific product type can be packed and that requires no additional packaging for storage and shipment.
Pallet
A platform on which goods can be stacked in order to facilitate the movement by a fork lift or sling.
Pallet Convertor
Superstructure which can be applied to a pallet to convert it into either a box or post pallet.
Pallet Rack
A skeleton framework, of fixed or adjustable design, to support a number of individual pallet loads.
Pallet Truck
Pedestrian- or rider-controlled non-stacking lift truck fitted with forks.
Panamax Size
The maximum measurements and dimensions of a vessel capable to pass the Panama Canal.
Parcel
See Package.
Particular Average
A fortuitous partial loss to the subject matter insured, proximately caused by an insured peril but which is not a general average loss. Particular average only relates to damage and/or expenses which are exclusively borne by the owners of a vessel which has sustained damage as a result of e.g. heavy weather or by the owners of the cargo, which has been damaged in transit.
Partition
See Divider.
Payee
A party to whom a payment is made or owed.
Payer
A party who pays or is to pay.
Payload
The revenue-producing load carried by a means of transport.
Payment
That which discharges a debt.
Payment Against Documents
Instructions given by a seller to a bank to the effect that the buyer may collect the documents necessary to obtain delivery of the goods only upon actual payment of the invoice.
Performance Indicator
A variable indicating the effectiveness and/or efficiency of a process.
Performance Measurement
The comparison of the results of business processes with each other or with standards in order to know the effectiveness of these processes and/or the supportive actions.
Physical Distribution
Those activities related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.
Physical Distribution Management
The planning execution and control of those activities which are related to the flow of goods from the end of conversion to the customer.
Pick and Pack
Taking goods out of a stock and packing them according to customer conditions.
Pick Order
An order to pick certain quantities of goods out of a stock.
Pick Up and Delivery
A service concerning the collection of cargo from the premises of the consignor and the delivery to the premises of the consignee.
Picking
Taking products or components out of a stock.
Picking List
A list used to collect items from stores needed to fulfil an order.
Synonym: Material issue list, Kitting list.
Pier
See quay.
Piggyback
The carriage of road vehicles and trailers on railway wagons.
Synonym: Huckepack Carriage.
Pilferage
Petty stealing of goods from a ship's hold, cargo shed or warehouse.
Pipeline
A line of pipes for conveying liquids and gasses.
The physical goods flow from a supplying organization to a receiving organization.
Pipeline Inventory
The amount of goods in a pipeline: the sum of loading stock, goods in transit and receiving stock.
Synonym: Floating Stock.
Place of Acceptance
See place of receipt.
Place of Delivery
The location where a consignment (shipment) is delivered to the consignee viz. the place where the carrier's liability ends for the transport venture.
Place of Receipt
The location where a consignment (shipment) is received by the carrier from the shipper viz. the place where the carrier's liability for transport venture commences.
Synonym: Place of Acceptance.
Placement
The activity of positioning an object or goods in a chosen location or position.
Planning
The setting of goals over a certain time and the determination of how to achieve these goals and with what resource.
Planning Horizon
The period of time to which a certain particular plan relates.
Platform
The bare floor of a container, suitable for the carriage of uncontainerable cargo, as several platforms can be placed together to provide a larger base. Plated for the carriage of heavy goods. 20' and 40'.
Platform
The area on an airport where aircrafts are parked for embarkation and/or loading and discharging purposes (aircargo).
Synonym: Apron, Ramp.
Platform Body
A truck or trailer without ends, sides or top but with only a floor.
Plimsoll Mark
A mark, welded on both sides of the vessel, which gives the limit to which a vessel may be loaded, depending on the specific gravity of the water in which the vessel is situated.
Pontoon
A vessel with flat deck and a shallow draft.
Pool
The shared use of e.g. equipment by a number of companies, which make together the investments in the equipment mentioned.
Point Value
The point value can be seen as the relative value of an empty container of a certain size type in a depot location.
The system serves to quantify the imbalance costs resulting from a full container move and are the result of empty optimization calculations.
Point values are created on forecasted container flows between depot locations.
They are calculated taking into account a.o. the forecasted imbalances plus repositioning, storage and container costs for empty moves and expressed in USD.
Note: In the various computer systems point values are used to calculate the imbalance charge or credit for a particular container flow. This charge or credit is the difference in point values between start and end depot location.
Poop
Aft part of a vessel where the steering engine is located.
Port
Harbour having facilities for vessels to moor and load or discharge.
Left side of a vessel when facing towards the front or forward end.
Port of Call
Place where a vessel actually drops anchor or moors during a certain voyage.
Port of Discharge
The port where the cargo is actually discharged (unloaded) from the sea (ocean) going vessel.
Port of Loading
The port where the cargo is actually loaded on board the sea (ocean) going vessel.
Portal Crane
A type of gantry crane with vertical legs of sufficient height and width to permit vehicles or railroad equipment to pass between the legs.
Portlog
A statement concerning a vessel containing the actual arrival and departure time used tugs, draft, deadweight, quantity of discharged and loaded goods/containers and any other important particulars.
Positioning
The transport of empty equipment from a depot to shipper's premises or from consignee's premises back to a depot as the empty leg of a carrier haulage transport
Postal Code
A national code maintained by the Postal Authorities designed to indicate areas and accumulated addresses to facilitate sorting and the delivery of mail and other goods.
Note: The coding system is different in the various countries throughout the world. In the Netherlands the code consists of 4 figures and 2 characters.
Practice
That what has become customary as a result of repeated acts.
Precarriage
The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port (place) of loading into the ocean vessel (main means of transport).
Precarrier
The carrier by which the goods are moved prior to the main transport.
Preshipment Inspection
Abbreviation: PSI
The checking of goods before shipment for the purpose of determining the quantity and/or quality of said goods by an independent surveyor (inspection company) for phytosanitary, sanitary and veterinary controls.
Presently there is a tendency by developing countries to use the inspection also for the purpose of determining whether the price charged for certain goods is correct.
Pre-slinging
The act of placing goods in slings which are left in position and used for loading into and discharging from a conventional vessel.
Pre-trip Inspection
Abbreviation: PTI
A technical inspection of Reefer containers prior to positioning for stuffing.
Price transparency
When both buyer and seller know pricing. Net markets can eliminate arbitrage situations when only a broker knows the price. Net markets can result in sellers making more money and buyers paying a lower price, since broker margins are reduced.
Principal
Person for whom another acts as agent.
Principal Carrier
See Responsible Carrier.
Principal Corporate Body
The company that owns the various subsidiary companies or branches acting as customers on their own and is registered as the corporate customer for statistical purposes.
Priority Order
An order which is identified as taking precedence over other orders to ensure its completion in the minimum time.
Synonym: Urgent order, Rush order.
Private Carrier
Business which operates trucks primarily for the purpose of transporting its own products and raw materials. The principle business activity of a private carrier is not transportation.
Private Warehouse
A warehouse operated by the owner of the goods stored there.
Pro Forma Invoice
Draft invoice sent to an importer by the exporter prior to order confirmation and shipment to assist in matters relating to obtaining import licences or foreign exchange allocations, or simply to advise the value of a consignment so that letters of credit can be opened.
Procurement
The activities which ensure the availability of the material and or services in the desired quantity, quality, place and time from the supplier.
Procurement hub
An MRO procurement marketplace for routine purchases such as office supplies, travel services, or computers needed to run a business but not central to the business's output. A type of horizontal or functional market. Examples: Ariba, Commerce One. (Related terms: MRO, horizontal market)
Procurement Logistics
Control of the flow of materials up to the manufacturing process.
Product
A result, end item or output from a certain process.
Product Chain
All phases in the transformation- or production process of one product.
Product Life Cycle
The period of time between the introduction date and end date of a product in the market.
Note: Phases are introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, decline & end.
Production
The conversion of materials and or assembly of components to manufacture goods, products or services.
The total quantity of goods manufactured or to be manufactured in a particular period of time expressed in quantitative or financial terms. (The term manufacturing is often used specifically for physical operations resulting in a product).
Productivity
Relative measure of output of labour hour or machine hour.
Profit Centre
An organizational unit which will be held responsible for its own profits and losses.
Project Cargo
Quantity of goods connected to the same project and often carried on different moments and from various places.
Proof of Delivery
The receipt signed by the consignee upon delivery.
Proper Shipping Name
A name to be used to describe particular goods on all shipping documents and notifications and, if appropriate, on the goods.
Propriety Standard
A standard which has been endorsed by industry or government as the accepted international standard, but not officially approved by an accredited standards body such as ISO.
Protection and Indemnity Club
Abbreviation: P & I club.
A mutual association of shipowners who provide protection against liabilities by means of contributions.
Protocol
A statement drawn up to attest certain events.
Public Authorities
The agencies or officials in a state responsible for the application and enforcement of the laws and regulations of that state. Source: IMO.
Public Warehouse
A warehouse which is available to all companies and persons who wish to make use of the services offered.
Pull Distribution System
A system to provide warehouses with new stock on request of the warehouse management.
Purchase Order
A definite order for one or more deliveries by the supplier to the customer of a specific quantity of goods, materials, services or products under agreed terms of delivery and prices.
Purchasing hub
Buyer-centric mediators that aggregate demand from small buyers to negotiate better terms with large sellers. Can be horizontal (operating supplies) or vertical manufacturing. Used for spot purchasing (using exchange or auction) or systematic purchasing (catalog mechanism). The horizontal purchasing hubs use horizontal logistics (UPS, for example), while the vertical purchasing hubs generally need vertical logistics (for hazardous chemicals, for example) work with existing distributors.
Push Distribution System
A system to provide warehouses with new stock upon decision of the supplier of the goods.

Qualifier
A data element whose value shall be expressed as a code that gives specific meaning to the function of another data element or a segment.
Quality (ISO8402)
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
Note: The ISO9000 standards on quality management and quality assurance consists of 4 standards: 9000 guidelines for selection and use, 9001 model for quality assurance in design/development 9002 model for quality assurance in production and installation, 9003 model for quality assurance in final inspection and test, and 9004 guidelines for quality management and quality system elements, part 2 are guidelines for services.
Quality Assurance (ISO8402)
All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.
Quality Control (ISO8402)
The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality.
Quantity Charge
The unit rate which is lower than the normal rate and applies to shipments meeting specific weight requirements (aircargo).
Quantity Discount
A proportional reduction of a rate based on quantity (aircargo).
Quarantine
The period during which an arriving vessel, including its equipment, cargo, crew or passengers, suspected to carry or carrying a contagious disease is detained in strict isolation to prevent the spread of such a disease.
Quay
That part of a wharf which is intended for the mooring of vessels.
Synonym: pier.
Queue
A stored arrangement of computer data, programs or messages, waiting to be processed in the order in which they were submitted.
Quoin
Timber wedge used to secure drums against movement.
Quotas
A system of controlling imports, exports or production by specifying a certain limitation.
Quotation
Amount stated as the price according to tariff for certain services to be provided or issued to a customer with specification on conditions for carriage.
Quotation expiration date
The date as from which a quotation price is no longer valid.
Quota Restrictions
Restraints upon trade which limit the volume of exports into a country, abolished within the EC by 1968, and removed in many of the international agreements to which the EC is party.

Rail Car
A wheeled wagon used for the carriage of cargo by rail.
Rail Consignment Note
A document evidencing a contract for the transport of goods by rail.
Ramp
An artificial inclined path, road or track along which wheeled vehicles, cargo and trailers may pass for the purpose of changing their elevation and facilitating the loading and unloading operation (e.g. an entrance way into a Roll-on Roll-off vessel).
For aircargo see Platform.
Rate
The price of a transport service.
Quantity, amount or degree measured or applied.
Rate of Calculation
A factor for the calculation of an amount.
Rate of Turn
The figure indicating the speed of a change of course of a means of transport expressed in degrees per minute.
Rating
A class to which an article is assigned.
Real-Time
The description for an operating system that responds to an external event within a short and predictable time frame. Unlike a batch or time-sharing operating system, a real-time operating system provides services or control to independent ongoing physical processes
Rebate
That part of a transport charge which the carrier agrees to return.
Receipt
A written acknowledgement, that something has been received.
Receiving Carrier
The carrier receiving a consignment on behalf of a carrier, agent or shipper for onward transport (aircargo).
Receiving Stock
The stock comprising all the goods that have arrived at the door of the receiving organization and which is not yet available in the stock of that organization.
Reconditioning
All activities connected with restoring and or adjusting the packaging of a product. In such manner that it can be presented to the customer in the requested form.
Reconditioning of Garments
The act or process of bringing garments after transport in shop's condition.
Redelivery
Return of a shipment to the party who originally delivered it to the carrier (aircargo).
Return of a charter vessel to the owners.
Reefer
Refrigerated trailer with insulated walls and a self-powered refrigeration unit. Most commonly used for transporting food.
Reefer Cargo
Cargo requiring temperature control.
Reefer Container
A thermal container with refrigerating appliances (mechanical compressor unit, absorption unit etc.) to control the temperature of cargo.
Reforwarding Charge
Charges paid or to be paid for subsequent surface or air transport from the airport of destination by a forwarder, but not by a carrier under the Air Waybill (aircargo).
Refund
The repayment to the purchaser of the total charge or a portion of that charge for unused carriage.
Region
Specified geographical area for operational purposes.
Register Ton
The unit of measurement for the internal capacity of a vessel whereby one register ton equals 100 cubic feet (2.83 cubic meter). The gross (bruto) tonnage comprises all spaces below the main (tonnage) deck and the enclosed spaces above the main (tonnage) deck less exempted spaces.
The net tonnage consists of the gross tonnage less exemptions like ballast tanks, engine room, living quarters etc. The register tonnages are mentioned on the tonnage certificate.
Regroupage
The process of splitting up shipments into various consignments (degroupage) and combining these small consignments into other shipments (groupage).
Re-invoicing
The procedure whereby goods shipped directly from a supplier to the customer are invoiced in two stages: at first by the supplier to an intermediary and subsequently by the intermediary to the customer.
Rejection
Non-acceptance of e.g. cargo.
Relay
Common practice in the less-than-truckload industry, in which one driver takes a truck for 8 to 10 hours, then turns the truck over to another driver, pony express style.
Reliability of Delivery
The reliability of a supplier concerning the agreed terms of delivery with regard to the quality, quantity, delivery time, conditions and price.
Replacement
Indicating that a subject is interchangeable with another subject, but which differs physically from the original subject in that the installation of the replacement subject requires extra machining or provisions in addition to the normal application and methods of attachment.
Replenishment
Completion of stock.
Request for Proposals (RFP)
Invitation to suppliers to bid on supplying products or services that are difficult to describe for a company or public agency.
Request for Quotation (RFQ)
Invitation to suppliers to bid on supplying easily described products or services needed by a company or public agency.
Reservation
Allotment in advance of space or weight capacity. Also referred to as 'booking'.
Reserve Inventory
See Safety Stock.
Responsible Carrier
The carrier liable under the terms of a consortium Bill of Lading.
Carrier responsible for the transport of goods as indicated in the transport document (aircargo).
Synonym: Principal Carrier.
Returns
Goods returned to their place of acceptance.
Revenue
Amounts of income stemming from the provision of transport services.
Reverse auctions
Buyers post their need for a product or service, then suppliers bid to fulfill that need. Unlike an auction, prices only move down. FreeMarkets (industrial parts, raw materials) uses reverse auctions as its primary market mechanism, serving large buyers. Since buyer power is key to reverse auctions, they work either for large enterprises or when practiced by intermediaries like KillerBiz andBizBuyer, which aggregate demand of many small buyers. Reverse auctions also are becoming common features of many Net markets.
Reverse Distribution
The collection of used, damaged, or outdated products and/or packaging from end-users.
Rinacertificate
Certificate issued by the Italian Government for carrying dangerous goods in Italian Waters.
Road Carrier
Party undertaking transport by road of goods from one point to another such as indicated in the contract.
Synonym: Haulier.
RoadRailer
Semitrailer specially designed to travel both on highway and on rails. Manufactured by Wabash Corp.
Road Vehicle
A means of transport capable and allowed to move over public roads and other landways.
Roll Trailer
Special trailer for terminal haulage and stowage on board of Roll-on Roll-off vessels.
Also referred to as Mafi Trailer.
Rolling Resistance
The total frictional force that a tyre, a set of tyres or all the tyres on a vehicle is developing with the road.
Roll-on Roll-off
Abbreviation: RoRo.
System of loading and discharging a vessel whereby the cargo is driven on and off by means of a ramp.
RoRo
See Roll-on Roll-off.
Rotation
Sequence in which a vessel calls at the ports on her itinerary.
Round Trip
A voyage, a journey etc. to a certain place, port or country and back again.
Route
The track along which goods are (to be) transported.
Routing
The determination of the most efficient route(s) that people, goods, materials and or means of transport have to follow.
The process of determining how a shipment will be moved between consignor and consignee or between place of acceptance by the carrier and place of delivery to the consignee.
The process of aiding a vessel's navigation by supplying long range weather forecasts and indicating the most economic and save sailing route.
Row
A vertical division of a vessel from starboard to portside, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from midships to both sides.

SAD
See Single Administrative Document.
Safe Working Load
Abbreviation: SWL
The maximum load any lifting appliance may handle.
Safety Stock
In general, a quantity of stock planned to be in inventory to protect against fluctuations in demand and/or supply.
In the context of master production scheduling, safety stock can refer to additional inventory and/or capacity planned as protection against forecast errors and/or short terms changes in the backlog. Also referred to as 'overplanning' or a 'market hedge'.
Synonym: Reserve Inventory.
Said to Contain
Abbreviation: STC
Term in a Bill of Lading signifying that the master and the carrier are unaware of the nature or quantity of the contents of e.g. a carton, crate, container or bundle and are relying on the description furnished by the shipper.
Salvage
The saving or rescue of a vessel and/or the cargo from loss and/or damage at sea.
Scale Ton
Freighting measurement used in certain trades for various commodities.
Schedule
A timetable including arrival/departure times of ocean- and feeder vessels and also inland transportation.
It refers to named ports in a specific voyage (journey) within a certain trade indicating the voyage number(s).
In general: The plan of times for starting and/or finishing activities.
SCP Simplified Clearance Procedure
A procedure covering non-restricted goods which enables approved exporters or agents to export goods on presentation of minimum information. The full statistical information is supplied within 14 days of shipment.
SCR
See Specific Commodity Rate.
SDR
See Special Drawing Rights.
Seal
A device used for containers, lockers, trucks or lorries to proof relevant parties that they have remained closed during transport.
Seal Log
A document used to record seal numbers.
Seasonal Inventory
Inventory built up in anticipation of a seasonal peak of demand in order to smooth production.
Seaworthiness
Fitness of a vessel to travel in open sea mostly related to a particular voyage with a particular cargo.
Sectional Rate
The rate established by scheduled air carrier(s) for a section of a through route (aircargo).
SED
See Shipper's Export Declaration.
Segregation
Distance required by the rules of IMDG or BC codes between the various commodities of dangerous and or bulk cargoes.
Seller's Market
A 'seller's market' is considered to exist when goods cannot easily be secured and when the economic forces of business tend to be priced at the vendor's estimate of value. In other words, a state of trade favourable to the seller, with relatively great demand and high prices of something for sale.
Semi Trailer
A vehicle without motive power and with one or more axles designed to be drawn by a truck tractor and constructed in such way that a portion of its weight and that of its load rest upon e.g. the fifth wheel of the towing vehicle.
Sender
See Shipper.
Service Level
A measure for the extent to which the customer orders can be executed at delivery conditions normally accepted in the market.
Setting/Air Delivery Temperature
An indication in the documents (B/L) stating the air supply temperature to the container.
Note: No other details than this temperature shall be included in the Bill of Lading.
Service Bill
A service Bill (of Lading) is a contract of carriage issued by one carrier to another for documentary and internal control purposes. For internal documentary and control purposes a so-called participating agent in a consortium uses some kind of document which, depending on the trade, is referred to as 'Memo Bill' which will among others state:

  • Name of Carrier on whose behalf the original document (Way Bill, Bill of Lading, etc.) was issued
  • The original document number
  • The agent who issued the original document and his opponent at the discharging side
  • The number of packages, weight and measurement, marks and numbers and goods description
  • Further mandatory details in case of special cargo
  • No freight details will be mentioned and the Memo Bill is not a contract of carriage

See Bill of Lading.
Shed
See Warehouse.
Shelf Life
The specified length of time prior to use for which items which are inherently subject to deterioration are deemed to remain fit for use under prescribed conditions.
Synonym: Storage life.
Shift
Part of the work-program of a stevedoring company (a working day can have up to 3 shifts {24 hours}).
Ship
See Vessel.
Ship Broker
Acts as intermediary between shipowners or carriers by sea on the one hand and cargo interests on the other. The functions are to act as forwarding agent or custom broker, fixing of charters, and acting as chartering agent.
Ship's Protest
Statement of the master of a vessel before (in the presence of) competent authorities, concerning exceptional events which occurred during a voyage.
Shipment
A separately identifiable collection of goods to be carried.
See Consignment.
Note: In the United States of America the word shipment is used instead of the word consignment.
Shipoperator
A ship operator is either the shipowner or the (legal) person responsible for the actual management of the vessel and its crew.
Shipowner
The (legal) person officially registered as such in the certificate of registry where the following particulars are contained.
Name of vessel and port of registry.
Details contained in surveyors certificate.
The particulars respecting the origin stated in the declaration of ownership.
The name and description of the registered owner, if more than one owner the proportionate share of each.
Shipper
The merchant (person) by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of carriage of goods has been concluded with a carrier or any party by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage.
Synonym: Consignor, Sender.
Shipper's Export Declaration
Abbreviation: SED
A United States customs form to be completed for all exports to assist the government in compiling export statistics.
Shipper's Letter of Instruction
Abbreviation: SLI
A document containing instructions given by the shipper or the shipper's agent for preparing documents and forwarding (aircargo).
Shipping Container
Standard-sized rectangular box used to transport freight by ship, rail and highway. International shipping containers are 20 or 40 feet long, conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) standards and are designed to fit in ships' holds. Containers are transported on public roads atop a container chassis towed by a tractor.
Shipping Weight
"Dry" weight of a truck including all standard equipment, but excluding fuel and coolant.
Shipping Documents
Documents required for the carriage of goods.
Synonym: Transport Documents.
Shipping Instruction
Document advising details of cargo and exporter's requirements of its physical movement.
Shipping Label
A label attached to a shipping unit, containing certain data.
Shipping Marks
The identification shown on individual packages in order to help in moving it without delay or confusion to its final destination and to enable the checking of cargo against documents.
Synonym: Marks.
Shipping Note
Document provided by the shipper or his agent to the carrier, multimodal transport operator, terminal or other receiving authority, giving information about export consignments offered for transport, and providing for the necessary receipts and declarations of liability.
Shortage
The negative difference between actual available or delivered quantity and the required quantity.
Shrink Wrapping
Heat treatment that shrinks an envelope of poly-ethylene or similar substance around several units, thus forming one unit. It is used e.g. to secure packages on a pallet.
Shut-out
Containers not carried on intended vessel.
Shuttle Service
The carriage back and forth over an often short route between two points.
SIC
See Standard Industrial Classification.
Siding
A short railroad track connected with a main track by a switch to serve a warehouse or an industrial area.
Simulation
The imitation of the reality for studying the effect of changing parameters in a model as a means of preparing a decision.
Single Administrative Document
Abbreviation: SAD
A set of documents, replacing the various (national) forms for customs declaration within European Community, implemented on January 1st, 1988. The introduction of the SAD constitutes an intermediate stage in the abolition of all administrative documentation in intra European Community trade in goods between member states.
Single Market
In which the twelve member states of the European Community form a Single Market in which there is free movement of goods, persons, services and capital. Came into being 01 01 1993, when export and import Custom entries were abolished for intra-community trade.
SITPRO
National organization for the Simplification of International Trade PROcedures in the United Kingdom (e.g. in The Netherlands SITPRO is called 'Sitproneth', in France 'Simprofrance' and in Japan 'Jastpro').
Skeleton Trailer
Road trailer consisting of a frame and wheels, specially designed to carry containers.
See chassis.

Skids
Battens fitted underneath frames, boxes or packages to raise them off the floor and allow easy access for fork lift trucks, slings or other handling equipment.
Sleeper
Sleeping compartment mounted behind a truck cab, sometimes attached to the cab or even designed to be an integral part of it.
Sleeper Team
Team of two drivers who alternative driving and resting.
SLI
See Shipper's Letter of Instruction.
Sliding Tandem
An undercarriage with a subframe having provision for convenient fore and aft adjustment of its position on the chassis/semi-trailer. The purpose being to be able to shift part of the load to either the king pin or the suspension to maximize legally permitted axle loads (road cargo).
Sling
Special chain, wire rope, synthetic fibre strap or ropes used for cargo handling purposes.
Slot
The space on board a vessel, required by one TEU, mainly used for administrative purposes
Slot Charter
A voyage charter whereby the shipowner agrees to place a certain number of container slots (TEU and/or FEU) at the charterer's disposal.
SOB - Shipped on board
An endorsment on a B/L confirming loading of goods on the vessel. See also Cell Position.
Space Charter
A voyage charter whereby the shipowner agrees to place part of the vessels capacity at the charterers disposal.
Special Drawing Rights
Abbreviation: SDR
Unit of account from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), i.a. used to express the amount of the limitations of a carrier's liability.
Special Rate
A rate other than a normal rate (aircargo).
Specific Commodity Rate
Abbreviation: SCR
A rate applicable to carriage of specifically designated commodities (aircargo).
Specified Rate
A rate specified in an IATA Cargo Tariff Coordination Conference resolution (aircargo).
Speedability
Top speed a vehicle can attain as determined by engine power, engine governed speed, gross weight, driveline efficiency, air resistance, grade and load.
Spoke
The stretch between a hub and one of the group of consignees and/or consignors being served by the hub.
Spontaneous Ignition Temperature
The lowest temperature at which a substance will start burning spontaneously without an external source of ignition.
Spot market
A market for unplanned purchases not made under contract terms. Transactions usually made on a one-time basis. Related terms: spot buy, spot demand.
Spreader
Device used for lifting containers and unitized cargo.
Beam or frame that holds the slings vertical when hoisting a load, to prevent damage to cargo.
Stability
The capacity of a vessel to return to its original position after having been displaced by external forces. The stability of a vessel depends on the meta-centric height.
Stack
An identifiable amount of containers stowed in a orderly way in one specified place on an (ocean) terminal, container freight station, container yard or depot (see container stack).
Stacking
To pile boxes, bags, containers etc. on top of each other.
Stackweight
The total weight of the containers and cargo in a certain row.
Standards
Efforts to create wide use of specific protocols so software from different vendors can interoperate more easily, particularly within a vertical industry. Standards bodies or efforts often work more slowly than entrepreneurial companies in setting up interoperable terms of trade. Many e-commerce standards today are based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language), which provides a flexible way to describe product specifications or business terms. Relevant b2b e-commerce standards efforts include BizTalk, promoted by Microsoft so different industries can communicate online with each other; Open Buying on the Internet (OBI), overseen by trade group CommerceNet; and RosettaNet, an effort within the computer manufacturing industry.
Standard Costs
A carefully prepared estimate of the cost of performing a given operation under specified conditions.
Note: A standard work order describes a standard operation for which a standard cost is to be established.
Standard Industrial Classification
Abbreviation: SIC
A method, used in the United States, to categorize companies into different industrial groupings.
Standard Product Module
Abbreviation: SPM
The building blocks used by business management to define services (shipment products) which can be offered to customers. They describe a more or less isolated set of activities with a standard cost attached to it. For operations management each module defines a combination of standard operations that needs to be carried out for a customer.
Note: SPM's can be regarded as the interface between business and operations management.
Standards Testing
Determines whether the national, international, or military standards and specifications) are viable and implementable.
Starboard
Right side of a vessel when facing towards the front or forward end.
STC
See Said To Contain.
Sticky, stickiness
The ability to retain participants. (See switching costs, lifetime value of the customer.)
Steering of Containers
The function, with the aid of specific software for tracking and forecasting (IRMA, MINKA), to direct empty containers to demanding areas at minimum costs.
Stem
The foremost part of a vessel.
Stern
The aftermost part of a vessel.
Stock
The materials in a supply chain or in a segment of a supply chain, expressed in quantities, locations and or values.
Synonym: Inventory when used as a generic term, common in the USA and extensive in the UK.
Stock Control
The systematic administration of stocklevels with respect to quantity at all times.
Stock Keeping Unit
The description of the unit of measurement by which the stock items are recorded on the stock record.
Stock Locator System
A system in which all places within a warehouse are named or numbered.
Stock Point
A point in the supply chain meant to keep materials available.
Stock Record
A record of the quantity of stock of a single item, often containing a history of recent transactions and information for controlling the replenishment of stock.
Storage
The activity of placing goods into a store or the state of being in store (e.g. a warehouse).
Storage Charge
The fee for keeping goods in a warehouse.
Stores
Provisions and supplies on board required for running a vessel.
Stowage
The placing and securing of cargo or containers on board a vessel or an aircraft or of cargo in a container.
Stowage Factor
Ratio of a cargo's cubic measurement to its weight, expressed in cubic feet to the ton or cubic metres to the tonne, used in order to determine the total quantity of cargo which can be loaded in a certain space.
Stowage Instructions
Imperative details about the way certain cargo is to be stowed, given by the shipper or his agent.
Stowage Plan
A plan indicating the locations on the vessel of all the consignments for the benefit of stevedores and vessel's officers.
Stowaway
An unwanted person who hides on board of a vessel or an aircraft to get free passage, to evade port officials etc.
Straddle Carrier
Wheeled vehicle designed to lift and carry shipping containers within its own framework. It is used for moving, and sometimes stacking, shipping containers at a container terminal.
Straddle Crane
A crane usually running on rails and spanning an open area such as rail-tracks or roadways.
Straight Truck
Vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis, rather than on a trailer towed by the vehicle.
Strange attractor
A key feature that causes buyers and sellers to use a Net market, often eliminating a transaction cost in a specific industry. Examples: CarStation (locating, then obtaining auto body parts), e-Chemical (distributing industrial chemicals), Chemdex (comparing chemical reagents from different vendors), Floraplex (paying sellers in seven days, not 45).
Strap
A band of metal, plastic or other flexible material used to hold cargo or cases together.
Stretch
The leg between two points.
Stripping
The unloading of cargo out of a container. Synonym: Devanning, Unstuffing, Unpacking.
Stuffing
The loading of cargo into a container.
Synonym: Vanning, Packing.
Suboptimizing
Striving for optimum performance in one element of an organization disregarding the effects this may cause to the performance of the other elements. In other words, a solution for a problem that is best from a narrow point of view but not from a higher or overall company point of view.
Substretch
Part of a stretch. This term is used if it is necessary to distinguish between a stretch and a part thereof.
Supercargo
Experienced officer assigned by the charterer of a vessel to advise the management of the vessel and protect the interests of the charterer.
Supply Chain
A sequence of events in a goods flow which adds to the value of a specific good. These events may include:
-conversion
-assembling and/or disassembling
-movements and placements
Supply chain management
An attempt to coordinate processes involved in producing, shipping and distributing products, generally with large suppliers. Net markets can extend supply chain management to all trading partners regardless of size because they provide a central hub to integrate information from buyers and sellers.
Supply Vessel
Vessel which carries stock and stores to offshore drilling rigs, platforms.
Surcharge
An additional charge added to the usual or customary freight.
Survey
An inspection of a certain item or object by a recognized specialist.
Surveyor
A specialist who carries out surveys.
Note: A surveyor is quite representing a classification bureau or a governmental body.
Switching costs
Costs incurred in changing suppliers or marketplaces. Net markets often seek to re-architect procurement, search, and other processes so buyers stay put, a key reason switching costs are higher in business-to-business than consumer e-commerce. (See lifetime value of the customer, churn).
SWL
See Safe Working Load.
Swop Body
Separate unit without wheels to carry cargo via road sometimes equipped with legs to be used to carry cargo intermodal within Europe.
The advantage being that this unit can be left behind to load or discharge whilst the driver with the truck/chassis can change to another unit.
These units are not used for sea transport.
Synergy
The simultaneous joint action of separate parties which, together, have greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects.

System
A whole body of connected elements which influence each other and have specific relations with the environment.

T1
Goods that are not in free circulation are assigned the EC Customs code T1.
T2
Goods that are in free circulation are assigned the EC Customs code T2.
Tallyman
A person who records the number of cargo items together with the condition thereof at the time it is loaded into or discharged from a vessel.
Tank Container
A tank, surrounded by a framework with the overall dimensions of a container for the transport of liquids or gasses in bulk.
Tanker
A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk.
Tare Mass of Container
See Tare Weight of Container.
Tare Weight of Container
Mass of an empty container including all fittings and appliances associated with that particular type of container on its normal operating condition.
Synonym: Tare Mass of Container.
Tariff
The schedule of rates, charges and related transport conditions.
Tarpaulin
Waterproof material, e.g. canvas, to spread over cargo to protect it from getting wet.
Taxonomy
A classification system for items based on their relationship to one another. Related terms: ontology, normalize.
Terminal
A location on either end of a transportation line including servicing and handling facilities.
TEU
See Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit.
Terms of Delivery
All the conditions agreed upon between trading partners regarding the delivery of goods and the related services.
Note: Under normal circumstances the INCO terms are used to prevent any misunderstandings.
Terms of Freight
All the conditions agreed upon between a carrier and a merchant about the type of freight and charges due to the carrier and whether these are prepaid or are to be collected.
Note: The so-called Combi terms based on the INCO terms do make a distinction what of the freight and related costs is to be paid by the seller and what by the buyer. In the UN recommendation 23 a coding system is recommended to recognize the various items.
Thermal Container
A container built with insulating walls, doors, floor and roof by which heat exchange with the environment is minimized thus limiting temperature variations of the cargo.

Third Party Logistics Provider: A firm which provides multiple logistics services for use by customers. Preferably, these services are integrated, or "bundled" together by the provider. These firms facilitate the movement of parts and materials from suppliers to manufacturers, and finished products from manufacturers to distributors and retailers. Among the services which they provide are transportation, warehousing, cross-docking, inventory management, packaging, and freight forwarding.

Third-Party Warehousing: The outsourcing of the warehousing function by the seller of the goods.

Third Party Logistics
Supply of logistics related operations between traders by an independent organization.
Through Charge
The total rate from point of departure to point of destination. It may be a joint rate or a combination of rates (aircargo).
Synonym: Through Rate.
Through Rate
See Through Charge.
Through Route
The total route from point of departure to point of destination (aircargo).
Tier
A horizontal division of a vessel from bottom to top. The numbers run from bottom to deck and from deck upwards and are used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers.
Tilt Transport
Roadtransport whereby the cargo area is protected against the elements by means of a tilt made of canvas or other pliable material.
Time Charter
A contract whereby a vessel is let to a charterer for a stipulated period of time or voyage, for a remuneration known as hire, generally a monthly rate per ton deadweight or a daily rate. The charterer is free to employ the vessel as he thinks fit within the terms as agreed, but the shipowner continues to manage his own vessel through the master and crew who remain his servants.
Time Sheet
Statement, drawn-up by the ship's agent at the loading and discharging ports, which details the time worked in loading and discharging the cargo together with the amount of laytime used.
TIR
Transport International des Merchandises par la Route.
TOFC
See Trailer on Flat Car.
Ton
Unit of weight measurement: 1000 kilograms (metric ton) or 2,240 lbs (long ton).
Unit of cubic measurement, mainly used to express the cubic capacity of a vessel.
Unit of weight or measurement used as a basis for the calculation of freights (freight ton).
Tonnage
Cubic capacity of a merchant vessel.
Total weight or amount of cargo expressed in tons.
The displacement of a vessel in tons of water; or a duty charged per ton of cargo at a port, pier, dock or canal.
Tracing
The action of retrieving information concerning the whereabouts of cargo, cargo items, consignments or equipment.
Tracking
The function of maintaining status information, including current location, of cargo, cargo items, consignments or containers either full or empty.
Traction
The power to grip or hold to a surface while moving without slipping.
Tractor
A powered vehicle designed and used for towing other vehicles.
Trade
a)The exchange of goods, funds, services or information with value to the parties involved. This value is either previously agreed or established during business.
b)A commercial connection between two or more individual markets.
Traffic
The number of passengers, quantity of cargo etc. carried over a certain route.
Trailer
A vehicle without motive power, designed for the carriage of cargo and to be towed by a motor vehicle.
Trailer on Flat Car
Abbreviation: TOFC
Carriage of piggyback highway trailers on specially equipped railway wagons.
Tramp Vessel
A vessel not operating under a regular schedule.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
A compilation of network and transport level protocols that allow a PC to speak the same language as other PCs on the Internet or other networks.
Acronym: TCP/IP
Trans Siberian Landbridge
Overland route from Europe to the Far East via the Trans Siberian Railway (TSR).
Transit Shipment
A shipment passing between one port and another, or between a port and a final destination.
Transfer Cargo
Cargo arriving at a point by one flight and continuing there-from by another flight (aircargo).
Transferring Carrier
A participating carrier who delivers the consignment to another carrier at a transfer point (aircargo).
Transit Cargo
Cargo between outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.
Cargo arriving at a point and departing there-from by the same through flight (aircargo).
Transponder
A device (chip) used for identification, which automatically transmits certain coded data when actuated by a special signal from an interrogator.
Transport
The assisted movement of people and or goods.
Synonym: Carriage.
Note: Transport is often used as a generic term for various means of transport, and is distinguished from 'movement' in that it requires such means.
Transport Documents
See Shipping Documents.
Transport International by Road
Abbreviation: TIR
A set of rules following a customs convention to facilitate the international, European transport of goods by road with minimal interference under cover of TIR-carnets.
Transport Policy
The subject of several legislative decisions since 1983, but while regulations apply to several different transport sectors, there is as yet no common transport policy.
Trip
See Voyage.
Trip Leasing
Leasing a company's vehicle to another transportation provider for a single trip.
Trip Recorder
Cab-mounted device which electronically or mechanically records data such as truck speed, engine rpm, idle time and other information useful to trucking management.
Truck
Class of automotive vehicles of various sizes and designs for transporting goods.
Trunk
The stretch between two hubs mutually.
Trunking
Movement of containers between terminal and carrier's inland facilities.
Truckload
The quantity of freight required to fill a trailer; usually more than 10,000 pounds.
Acronym: TL
Tugmaster
Brand name of tractor unit used in ports to pull trailers. They are equipped with a fifth wheel or a gooseneck type of coupling.
Tweendeck
Cargo carrying surface below the main deck dividing a hold horizontally in an upper and a lower compartment.
Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit
Abbreviation: TEU
Unit of measurement equivalent to one twenty foot shipping container.
Twistlock
Device which has to be inserted into the corner fittings of a shipping container and is turned or twisted, thus locking the container for the purpose of securing or lifting.
Two Way Pallet
A pallet of which the frame permits the entry of forks of (e.g. a fork lift at two opposite sides).
Type of Cargo
An indication of the sort of cargo to be transported, (e.g. Break Bulk, Containerized, RoRo).
Type of Equipment
The type of material used, e.g. 40 feet container, four way pallet or mafi trailer.
Type of Load indicator
A general reference or a classification of loads of cargo like 'FCL', 'LCL', 'unpacked' and even ship's convenience container, though this is rarely used nowadays.
Type of Means of Transport
The type of vehicle used in the transport process, e.g. wide-body aircraft, tank truck or passenger vessel.
Type of Movement
Description of the service for movement of containers.
Note: The following type of movement can be indicated on B/L and Manifest all combinations of FCL and LCL and break bulk and RoRo. Whilst only on the manifest combinations of House, Yard and CFS can be mentioned.
Type of Packing
Description of the packaging material used to wrap, contain and protect goods to be transported.
Synonym: Kind of Packing, Package Type.
Type of Transport
The indication whether the carrier or the merchant effects and bears the responsibility for inland transport of cargo in containers i.e. a differentiation between the logistical and legal responsibility.
Note: Values are Carrier haulage and Merchant haulage, whilst in this context special cases are carrier-nominated merchant haulage, and merchant nominated carrier haulage.

UCP 500
See Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits.
UIC
See Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer.
ULCC
See Ultra Large Crude Carrier.
ULD
See Unit Load Device.
Ullage
Free space above a liquid contained in a tank, drum or tank-container, expressed as a percentage of the total capacity. Ullage is often used to leave room for possible expansion of the liquid.
Ultra Large Crude Carrier
Abbreviation: ULCC
A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 250.000 till 500.000 DWT.
UNCTAD
See United Nations Conference on Trade And Development.
Undercarriage
A supporting frame or structure of a wheeled vehicle.
The landing gear of an aircraft.
Undercarrier
A carrier in a conference or consortium who carries less cargo than the allotment distributed to him.
UNDG Number
See United Nations Dangerous Goods Number.
UNECE
See United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits
The in 1993 revized rules of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) governing a letter of credit issued in respect of goods shipped applicable as from 1-1-1994.
Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer
Abbreviation: UIC
International railway union, in which most of the European national railway companies are united.
Unit Load
A number of individual packages bonded, palletized or strapped together to form a single unit for more efficient handling by mechanical equipment.
Unit Load Device
Abbreviation: ULD
Any type of container or pallet, in which a consignment can be transported by air whether or not such a container is considered aircraft equipment.
Any type of air freight container, aircraft container, aircraft pallet with a net, or aircraft pallet with a net over an igloo.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Abbreviation: UNCTAD
A United Nations agency whose work in shipping includes the liner code involving the sharing of cargoes between the shipping lines of the importing and exporting countries and third countries in the ratio 40:40:20.
United Nations Dangerous Goods Number
Abbreviation: UNDG Number
The four-digit number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods to classify a substance or a particular groups of substances.
Note: The prefix 'UN' must always be used in conjunction with these numbers.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Abbreviation: UN/ECE
The UN/ECE is one of a number of Economic and Social Commissions established by the General Assembly of the United Nations. Despite its name it embraces both Europe and North America. The UN/ECE comprises twenty nine core member states, as well as any country which is a member of the United Nations and which applies under Article 11 of the United Nations constitution for delegate status.
The aim is to advance the economic development of Europe and associated countries through trade facilitation and common agreements.
United Nations Layout Key
Abbreviation: UNLK
A standard (ISO6422) which lays down the basic principles for the design of the image area on documents for use in international trade.
Synonym: Layout Key.
UNLK
See United Nations Layout Key.
United Nations Standard Message
Abbreviation: UNSM
A collection of structured data that is exchanged to convey information related to a specific transaction between partners engaged in electronic data interchange. Messages are composed of logically grouped segments required for the type of message transaction covered.
Note: A set of segments in the order specified in a message directory starting with the message header and ending with the message trailer (ISO9735).
UNSM
See United Nations Standard Message.
User Network
A public network made up of thousands of newsgroups and organized by topic.
Acronym: USENET
Utilization Rate
The quotient of used capacity and available capacity.

Valuable Cargo
A consignment which contains one or more valuable articles (aircargo).
Valuation Charge
Transport charges for certain goods, based on the value declared for the carriage of such goods (aircargo).
Valuation
A clause in a marine policy that fixes the insured value.
Value Added Tax
Abbreviation: VAT
A form of indirect sales tax paid on products and services at each stage of production or distribution, based on the value added at that stage and included in the cost to the ultimate customer.
Value Surcharge
A surcharge for the carriage of cargo having a value in excess of a specified amount per kilogram (aircargo).
Vanning
See Stuffing.
VAT
See Value Added Tax.
Vendee
Buyer.
Vendor
Seller.
Ventilated/Coffee
Identical to the GP, except for the inclusion of full length ventilation galleries sited along the top and bottom side rails, and thus ideal for the carriage of coffee, as condesation is prevented from accumulating. 20' only
Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives
A search tool (like archie) that searches text that appears in Gopher menus.
Acronym: VERONICA
Very Large Crude Carrier Abbreviation: VLCC
A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 50.000 till 250.000 DWT.
Vessel
A floating structure designed for the transport of cargo and/or passengers.
Synonym: Ship.
Boiler, drum.
Viral
A self-propagating practice or pattern of Internet use that moves from person to person. Works best in consumer e-commerce because of easy adoption. Longer sales cycle for b2b e-commerce makes viral practices less important. Example: HotMail's explosive growth
Virtual private marketplace
A private market to enable approved suppliers to bid on a large buyer's business or to enable more cost-effective transactions under negotiated terms. Can be a hosted extranet or a feature a larger Net market. For example, National Transportation Exchange sets VPMs for large shippers to schedule and obtain bids from approved carriers, in addition to NTE's main spot market. FreeMarkets sets up VPMs for large buyers to interact with their suppliers through reverse auctions.
VLCC
See Very Large Crude Carrier.
Volatility Allowance
The largest difference in container availability taking into account past peaks in net demand after having removed the trend in container demand during the repositioning trade-off period.
Volume
Size or measure of anything in three dimensions.
Volume Charge A charge for carriage of goods based on their volume (aircargo).
Voucher
A receipt, entry or other document which establish the accounts.
Voyage
A journey by sea from one port or country to another one or, in case of a round trip, to the same port.
Synonym: Trip.
Voyage Charter
A contract under which the shipowner agrees to carry an agreed quantity of cargo from a specified port or ports to another port or ports for a remuneration called freight, which is calculated according to the quantity of cargo loaded, or sometimes at a lumpsum freight.
Voyage Number
Reference number assigned by the carrier or his agent to the voyage of the vessel.

Waiting Time
The period of time between the moment at which one is ready for an activity to start and the moment at which this activity can actually begin. See also queue time.
Waiver Clause
Clause in a marine insurance policy stating that no acts of the insurer or insured in recovering, saving or preserving the property insured, shall be considered a dismissal from or acceptance of abandonment.
Warehouse
A building specially designed for receipt, storage and handling of goods.
Synonyms: Shed, Store.
Warehouse Keeper
Party who takes responsibility for goods entered into a warehouse.
Warehouse Receipt
Receipt for products deposited in a warehouse.
Warehousing
Those activities of holding and handling goods in a warehouse (store).
Warsaw Convention
The Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed at Warsaw, 12 October 1929, or that Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol, 1955, stipulating obligations or parties and limitations and/or exonerations of carriers (aircargo).
Waste Disposal
Processing and or removal to final resting place or transfer to a place for re-use or recovering of waste.
Waste Logistics
The collection of used, damaged, or outdated products and or packaging from designated users.
Synonym: Reverse Distribution.
Waybill
Non-negotiable document evidencing the contract for the transport of cargo.
Wear and Tear
Loss or deterioration resulting from ordinary use.
Weight Ton
A ton of 1000 kilos.
Wharf
A place for berthing vessels to facilitate loading and discharging of cargo.
Wharfage
The fee charged for the use of a wharf for mooring, loading or discharging a vessel or for storing goods.
WHO
See World Health Organization.
Wholesaler
An intermediary between manufacturers and retailers in various activities such as promotion, warehousing, and the arranging of transport and or distribution.
Workflow Marketplace
Provides project tracking or collaboration services for complex, iterative, multi-party projects in construction, syndicated bank debt, or licensed trademarks. Charge subscriptions but add transaction fees, such as Bidcom.com charging a contractor to print project blueprints. Create an information-sharing network that gives all parties an appropriate view of the project. Examples: Bidcom (construction), Hurricane (intellectual property). Also, many Net markets incorporate workflow to hold onto users. Once a Net market becomes part of everyday business processes, the switching to another Net market becomes much harder.
Work Load
The quantity of work ahead assigned to a certain facility such as a work station, capacity group or a department respectively staff-member.
World Health Organization
Abbreviation: WHO
The global agency linked with the United Nations and cooperating with other technical agencies relating to health matters at sea and on land.

X.25

International standard of the CCITT for packet switching.
X.400
A CCITT recommendation designed to facilitate international message and information exchange between subscribers of computer based store-and-forward services and office information systems in association with public and private data networks.
X.500
The CCITT now ITU recommendations (ISO9594) for the structure of directories for the maintenance of addresses used in electronic mail.
X-ray
High frequency electromagnetic ray of short wave-length, capable of penetrating most solid substances.

Yard
Fenced off, outdoor storage and repair area.
Yawl
A vessel's small boat moved by one oar.
Synonym: a jolly-boat.
A small sailboat rigged fore-and-aft, with a short mizzenmast astern of the cockpit; distinguished from ketch.
Yield Bucket
The remaining slot capacity for a trade/voyage in a certain port of loading after deduction of the allowance for specific contracts.
Yield Management
The process of maximising the contribution of every slot, vessel, trade and network. Basically it should be seen as the process of allocating the right type of capacity to the right kind of customer at the right price as to maximise revenue or yield.
The concept should be used in combination with load factor management.
York-Antwerp Rules
See General Average Act.

Zodiac

A rubber dinghy. An inflatable craft for the transport of people.
Zone
Area, belt or district extending about a certain point defined for transport and/or charge purpose.
Zone Haulage Rate
The rate for which the carrier will undertake the haulage of goods or containers between either the place of delivery and the carrier's appropriate terminal. Such haulage will be undertaken only subject to the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the carrier's Combined Transport Bill of Lading.
Zone Improvement Plan
Abbreviation: ZIP
System to simplify sorting and delivery of mail, consisting of a number of five digits (the so-called ZIP-code) for identification of the state, city or district, and the postal zone in the U.S.A. delivery areas.